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Mastercard Price, News , Charts and History

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Company Details, History, Founders and Founding Days

Mastercard, Inc operates as a technology company. The firm engages in the payments industry that connects consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments and business. It offers payment solutions for the development and implementation of credit, debit, prepaid, commercial and payment programs. The company was founded in 1966 and is headquartered in Purchase, NY.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction

  2. Founding and Early Years

  3. Major Milestones

  4. Key Stakeholders

  5. Board of Directors

  6. Current Trends

  7. Competitors

  8. Timeline

  9. Conclusion

1. Introduction

Mastercard Incorporated is a leading global payments and technology company that connects consumers, financial institutions, merchants, governments, and businesses worldwide. Founded in the 1960s, Mastercard has evolved significantly over the decades, becoming a major player in the global payments industry.

2. Founding and Early Years

Mastercard was founded as the Interbank Card Association (ICA) in 1966 by a group of California banks, initially as a response to Bank of America’s BankAmericard (now Visa). The founders aimed to create a unified brand to compete in the emerging credit card market. By 1979, the organization rebranded to Mastercard, which became the name of the company.


The key founders include:

  • Wells Fargo
  • United California Bank
  • Crocker National Bank
  • Bank of California

These banks formed a consortium to manage and promote the new brand and its associated products.

3. Major Milestones

  • 1966: Formation of the Interbank Card Association (ICA).
  • 1969: The card was rebranded as “Master Charge: The Interbank Card”.
  • 1979: Rebranding to “Mastercard”.
  • 1980s-1990s: Global expansion and technological advancements.
  • 2002: Merged with Europay International.
  • 2006: Initial Public Offering (IPO).
  • 2010s: Introduction of various digital payment solutions.
  • 2020s: Expansion into blockchain, AI, and cybersecurity.

4. Key Stakeholders

Mastercard’s stakeholders are varied and include:

  • Founders: The original banks that formed ICA.
  • Shareholders: Investors who own shares of Mastercard stock.
  • Board of Directors: Includes executives from various industries.
  • Customers: Banks, merchants, and consumers.
  • Regulatory Bodies: Financial regulatory authorities worldwide.
  • Partners: Technology firms, financial institutions, and other service providers.

5. Board of Directors

The Board of Directors of Mastercard comprises experienced leaders from various industries who provide strategic guidance and oversight. As of the latest available information, the key members include:

  • Ajay Banga: Executive Chairman
  • Michael Miebach: Chief Executive Officer
  • Richard Haythornthwaite: Former Chairman
  • Julius Genachowski: Managing Director at The Carlyle Group
  • Olivier Bohuon: Former CEO of Smith & Nephew plc
  • Jill C. Considine: Former Chairman and CEO of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation
  • Richard K. Davis: Chairman and CEO of Make-A-Wish America
  • Carlos A. Rodriguez: President and CEO of Automatic Data Processing, Inc. (ADP)
  • Youngme Moon: Professor at Harvard Business School
  • Rima Qureshi: Executive Vice President and Chief Strategy Officer at Verizon Communications
  • Silvio Barzi: Former CEO of Russell Investments

This diverse group brings a wealth of knowledge and expertise, helping Mastercard navigate the complex global financial landscape.

6. Current Trends

  • Digital Payments: Growth in contactless payments and e-commerce.
  • Cryptocurrency and Blockchain: Partnerships and solutions integrating blockchain technology.
  • Cybersecurity: Investments in securing transactions and user data.
  • AI and Machine Learning: Enhancing fraud detection and customer service.
  • Sustainability: Initiatives aimed at reducing the carbon footprint and promoting financial inclusion.

7. Competitors

Mastercard’s primary competitors include:

  • Visa: The largest global payments network.
  • American Express: Known for its premium card offerings.
  • Discover: Another major player in the U.S. market.
  • PayPal: A leader in digital and online payments.
  • Fintech Companies: Emerging competitors such as Square, Stripe, and other digital payment startups.

8. Timeline

9. Conclusion

Mastercard has come a long way since its inception in 1966. From a consortium of banks forming a response to a competitor, it has grown into a global leader in the payments industry. With continuous innovation and adaptation to new technologies, Mastercard remains at the forefront of the financial sector, navigating the challenges and opportunities of the digital age. As the industry continues to evolve, Mastercard’s commitment to secure, efficient, and inclusive payment solutions ensures its significant role in shaping the future of global commerce.

Reference: Chatgpt

This data is based on May 23 2024 data may vary in accordance to change with time.






USDC Price, Charts, News and History

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USDC History and Founders

The History of USDC: Founding, Growth, and Current Landscape

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction

  2. Founding Days of USDC

  3. Founders

  4. Total Supply and Circulation

  5. Major Stakeholders

  6. Current Hot Topics

  7. Timeline of Key Events

  8. Conclusion


USD Coin (USDC) is a stablecoin pegged to the U.S. dollar, designed to combine the benefits of both fiat and cryptocurrency. Its promise of stability, transparency, and reliability has made it a cornerstone in the world of digital assets. This article delves into the history of USDC, from its inception to its current status, exploring the key players, milestones, and ongoing developments shaping its journey.

Founding Days of USDC

USDC was introduced to the world in September 2018, through a collaboration between Circle and Coinbase. The aim was to create a stable digital currency that could facilitate seamless transactions on blockchain networks without the volatility typically associated with cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum. The stablecoin is fully backed by U.S. dollar reserves, ensuring that each USDC token is redeemable for one U.S. dollar, maintaining its 1:1 peg.


USDC is a product of Centre, a consortium founded by two significant entities in the cryptocurrency space:

  • Circle: Co-founded by Jeremy Allaire and Sean Neville in 2013, Circle is a global financial technology firm that has played a pivotal role in bringing USDC to market. Jeremy Allaire, a serial entrepreneur with a background in internet technology, has been a prominent figure advocating for digital currencies.

  • Coinbase: Established by Brian Armstrong and Fred Ehrsam in 2012, Coinbase is one of the largest and most reputable cryptocurrency exchanges in the world. Coinbase’s involvement provided the necessary infrastructure and user base to ensure the widespread adoption of USDC.

Total Supply and Circulation

USDC’s total supply is dynamic, expanding or contracting based on market demand. As of 2024, USDC’s market capitalization stands at approximately $30 billion, reflecting its significant presence in the digital asset ecosystem. The stablecoin operates on multiple blockchain networks, including Ethereum, Algorand, Solana, Stellar, and TRON, ensuring broad accessibility and utility.

Major Stakeholders

Several key players hold significant influence over USDC:

  • Circle and Coinbase: As founding members of Centre, these companies remain deeply involved in the governance and operational aspects of USDC.

  • Institutional Investors: Major financial institutions and investment firms have invested in USDC, leveraging its stability for various financial activities.

  • Decentralized Finance (DeFi) Platforms: Numerous DeFi platforms use USDC as a primary stablecoin for lending, borrowing, and liquidity provision.

Current Hot Topics

Regulatory Scrutiny

USDC, like other stablecoins, is under intense regulatory scrutiny. Authorities worldwide are examining the implications of stablecoins on financial stability, monetary policy, and consumer protection. USDC’s transparent operations and regular audits are critical in navigating these regulatory landscapes.

Expansion to New Blockchains

USDC continues to expand its presence on various blockchain networks. The recent integration with TRON and other blockchains highlights efforts to enhance transaction efficiency and reduce fees.

Integration with Traditional Finance

Efforts to bridge the gap between traditional finance and the cryptocurrency world are ongoing. Partnerships with payment processors and financial institutions aim to facilitate easier conversion between USDC and fiat currencies, promoting broader adoption.

Timeline of Key Events


USD Coin (USDC) has evolved from a collaborative project between Circle and Coinbase into a pivotal asset within the cryptocurrency ecosystem. Its commitment to transparency, stability, and regulatory compliance has cemented its role as a trusted stablecoin. As the digital economy continues to grow, USDC’s influence is poised to expand, bridging the gap between traditional finance and the burgeoning world of digital assets.

Reference: Chatgpt


Costco – Price ,Charts, history and Financials




Company History and Founding Days

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Founding Days
  3. Company Founders
  4. Major Stakeholders
  5. Company Timeline
  6. Board of Directors
  7. Conclusion


Costco Wholesale Corporation, known simply as Costco, has grown from a single warehouse in Seattle to a global retail giant. Renowned for its membership-based warehouse model, Costco offers a wide variety of goods at competitive prices, attracting millions of loyal members worldwide. This article delves into the founding days of Costco, the visionaries behind its success, its major stakeholders, and a detailed timeline of its growth. Additionally, we will take a closer look at the current board of directors who steer the company’s strategic direction.

Founding Days

Costco’s journey began in 1983 in Seattle, Washington. The concept was simple yet innovative: create a membership-only warehouse that could offer low prices by selling products in bulk. This idea was inspired by the success of Price Club, a warehouse store founded by Sol Price in 1976, which targeted small businesses with discounted bulk purchases.

Company Founders

Costco was co-founded by James (Jim) Sinegal and Jeffrey H. Brotman. Jim Sinegal, with a background in retail, brought extensive experience from his time at FedMart and Price Club. Jeffrey Brotman, a lawyer and entrepreneur, provided the legal acumen and business strategy essential for the company’s initial growth. Together, they opened the first Costco warehouse on September 15, 1983, in Seattle.

James (Jim) Sinegal

Jim Sinegal’s career in retail began in 1954 as a grocery bagger. His tenure at Price Club, where he served in various management roles, was instrumental in shaping his vision for Costco. Known for his hands-on management style and focus on customer satisfaction, Sinegal played a crucial role in establishing Costco’s reputation for quality and low prices.

Jeffrey H. Brotman

Jeffrey Brotman, with his legal background and business insight, complemented Sinegal’s retail expertise. Brotman, a University of Washington School of Law graduate, had a keen understanding of corporate law and finance, which was vital during the early stages of Costco’s development.

Major Stakeholders

As of recent reports, the major stakeholders in Costco include:

  1. Institutional Investors: Vanguard Group and BlackRock are among the top institutional investors, holding significant shares in the company.
  2. Founders and Executives: Although Jim Sinegal retired in 2011, his influence remains, and he retains a stake in the company.
  3. Individual Shareholders: Many individual investors also hold shares, benefiting from Costco’s consistent performance and growth.

Company Timeline


  • September 15: The first Costco warehouse opens in Seattle, Washington.


  • Costco goes public on December 5, raising capital to fuel expansion.


  • Costco merges with Price Club, creating PriceCostco, and expanding its footprint significantly.


  • The company rebrands to Costco Wholesale Corporation, solidifying its market identity.


  • Annual sales surpass $50 billion, marking a significant milestone in its growth trajectory.


  • Jim Sinegal retires as CEO, succeeded by Craig Jelinek, who continues the company’s expansion and maintains its core principles.


  • Costco transitions from American Express to Visa for its credit card partnership, enhancing customer benefits.


  • During the COVID-19 pandemic, Costco adapts by enhancing its e-commerce capabilities and implementing safety measures, ensuring continuous service to its members.

Board of Directors

The board of directors at Costco includes a diverse group of experienced professionals overseeing the company’s strategic direction:

  1. Hamilton E. James – Chairman of the Board, Executive Chairman of Blackstone Group.
  2. Craig Jelinek – President and CEO of Costco.
  3. Susan Decker – Former President of Yahoo! Inc.
  4. Kenneth D. Denman – CEO of Emotient, Inc.
  5. Hamilton E. James – Executive Vice Chairman of Blackstone Group.
  6. John W. Meisenbach – Founder of MCM, a financial consulting firm.
  7. Charles T. Munger – Vice Chairman of Berkshire Hathaway Inc.
  8. Jeffrey S. Raikes – Co-founder of the Raikes Foundation.
  9. Jill S. Ruckelshaus – Former Commissioner of the United States Commission on Civil Rights.
  10. Maggie Wilderotter – Former CEO of Frontier Communications.


Costco Wholesale Corporation’s evolution from a single warehouse in Seattle to a global retail powerhouse is a testament to the vision and dedication of its founders, Jim Sinegal and Jeffrey Brotman. Their commitment to providing quality goods at low prices, coupled with a focus on customer satisfaction, has driven Costco’s success. The company’s strategic growth, guided by its board of directors, ensures that it continues to thrive in the competitive retail landscape. Costco remains a beloved destination for millions, embodying the values of efficiency, quality, and customer care that have defined it since its inception.

Referance: Chatgpt




Dogecoin Charts, live price ,News and Details


Dogecoin  Profile

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Profile and History
    • Founding and Concept
    • Initial Popularity and Growth
  3. Recent Events
  4. Major Stakeholders
  5. Founding Members
  6. Conclusion
  7. Chart: Dogecoin Timeline


Dogecoin, originally introduced as a joke cryptocurrency, has grown into a notable player in the crypto market, known for its active community and unique culture. This document outlines the history, major events, stakeholders, and founding members of Dogecoin, providing a comprehensive overview of its journey from inception to its current status.


Profile and History

Founding and Concept

Dogecoin was created by software engineers Billy Markus and Jackson Palmer in December 2013. Inspired by the popular “Doge” meme featuring a Shiba Inu dog, Markus and Palmer aimed to create a fun and lighthearted cryptocurrency that could reach a broader audience than Bitcoin. The idea was to make a currency that could appeal to the internet community and foster a positive, supportive online culture.

Initial Popularity and Growth

Upon its release, Dogecoin quickly gained traction, thanks in part to its strong community on platforms like Reddit and Twitter. The currency’s light-hearted approach and friendly mascot differentiated it from other cryptocurrencies, leading to widespread adoption for tipping content creators and charitable donations. Dogecoin’s community has undertaken various philanthropic initiatives, such as funding the Jamaican bobsled team’s trip to the 2014 Winter Olympics and building clean water wells in Kenya.

Recent Events

In recent years, Dogecoin has seen significant fluctuations in value, often influenced by high-profile endorsements and social media trends. Notably, billionaire entrepreneur Elon Musk has frequently tweeted about Dogecoin, causing spikes in its price. In 2021, Dogecoin reached an all-time high, driven by a combination of social media hype and increased interest from retail investors. Additionally, Dogecoin has been listed on major cryptocurrency exchanges, further legitimizing its presence in the market.

Major Stakeholders

The major stakeholders in Dogecoin include a mix of its original creators, prominent supporters, and large investors. Key figures include:

  • Elon Musk: CEO of Tesla and SpaceX, known for his frequent tweets about Dogecoin.
  • Billy Markus: Co-founder of Dogecoin, who remains active in the community.
  • Jackson Palmer: Co-founder, who has distanced himself from the cryptocurrency space.
  • Retail Investors: A significant portion of Dogecoin’s value is driven by small investors who are part of its enthusiastic online community.

Founding Members

Billy Markus

Billy Markus, also known as “Shibetoshi Nakamoto” online, is a software engineer who co-created Dogecoin. He envisioned a cryptocurrency that could serve as a more accessible and fun alternative to Bitcoin, which was seen as complex and intimidating by many. Markus continues to engage with the Dogecoin community, offering insights and updates on the currency’s development.

Jackson Palmer

Jackson Palmer, an Australian marketer and software engineer, co-founded Dogecoin alongside Markus. Palmer initially created the website and proposed the idea of Dogecoin on social media, which caught Markus’s attention. Although Palmer has since stepped back from the cryptocurrency world, his role in Dogecoin’s creation was pivotal.


Dogecoin’s journey from a meme to a significant cryptocurrency highlights the power of community and internet culture. While it began as a joke, Dogecoin has proven to be resilient and influential, driven by a dedicated community and high-profile endorsements. Its future remains uncertain, but its impact on the cryptocurrency landscape is undeniable.

Dogecoin Timeline

  • 2013: Founding of Dogecoin by Billy Markus and Jackson Palmer
  • 2014:
    • Dogecoin community funds Jamaican bobsled team for Winter Olympics
    • Dogecoin community raises funds for clean water wells in Kenya
  • 2015: Jackson Palmer steps back from Dogecoin
  • 2018: Dogecoin reaches $2 billion market cap
  • 2021:
    • Dogecoin reaches all-time high driven by social media and Elon Musk endorsements
    • Listed on major cryptocurrency exchanges
  • 2023: Continued community support and ongoing development

This timeline captures the significant events that have shaped Dogecoin, illustrating its evolution from a playful digital currency to a recognized player in the cryptocurrency world.

Reference: Chatgpt





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UnitedHealth Group: An Overview


UnitedHealth Group (UHG) is a diversified healthcare company based in the United States, known for its extensive network of services in the healthcare sector. Founded in 1977, UHG has grown to become a leading player in the healthcare industry, offering a broad spectrum of health care products and insurance services. This article delves into the financial history, board of directors, and major stakeholders of UnitedHealth Group.

Financial Data and History

Growth and Expansion

UnitedHealth Group has demonstrated significant growth since its inception. The company’s strategy of expanding through acquisitions and diversifying its services has played a crucial role in its financial success.

  • Revenue Growth: In 2023, UHG reported revenues of $324.2 billion, reflecting a steady increase from previous years. This growth has been driven by the expansion of its UnitedHealthcare and Optum segments.
  • Net Income: The net income for 2023 stood at approximately $20.6 billion, showcasing a robust profit margin that underscores the company’s efficient operational strategies and cost management.

Financial Milestones

  • IPO and Early Growth: UHG went public in 1984. The capital raised allowed for rapid expansion and diversification.
  • Acquisitions: Key acquisitions such as PacifiCare Health Systems in 2005, Catamaran Corporation in 2015, and Surgical Care Affiliates in 2017 have significantly boosted UHG’s market presence and revenue streams.

Key Financial Indicators

  • Earnings per Share (EPS): For 2023, the EPS was reported at $21.40, up from $18.50 in 2022, reflecting the company’s strong profitability.
  • Dividend Payout: UHG has a history of returning value to shareholders through dividends, with the 2023 dividend payout ratio being approximately 28%, indicative of a healthy balance between rewarding shareholders and retaining earnings for growth.

Board of Directors

UnitedHealth Group’s board of directors is composed of a diverse group of experienced professionals who guide the company’s strategic direction. As of 2024, the key members of the board include:

  • Stephen J. Hemsley: Serving as Chairman, Hemsley has been with UHG in various leadership roles since 1997.
  • Andrew Witty: CEO and Director, Witty brings extensive experience in the global healthcare industry, having previously served as CEO of GlaxoSmithKline.
  • John H. Noseworthy: Former President and CEO of Mayo Clinic, Noseworthy’s expertise in healthcare management adds significant value to the board.
  • Michele J. Hooper: Known for her leadership in corporate governance and financial oversight, Hooper chairs the audit committee.

The board’s collective expertise in healthcare, finance, and corporate governance positions UHG for sustained success and innovation.

Major Stakeholders

Institutional Investors

UnitedHealth Group’s major stakeholders primarily consist of institutional investors who hold significant portions of the company’s shares. As of the latest reports:

  • Vanguard Group: One of the largest stakeholders, holding approximately 8% of UHG’s shares.
  • BlackRock, Inc.: Another major institutional investor, with about 7% ownership.
  • State Street Corporation: Holds around 4.5% of the company’s shares, making it a significant stakeholder.

Insider Holdings

  • Stephen J. Hemsley: As a long-serving executive, Hemsley holds a substantial number of shares, aligning his interests with those of other shareholders.
  • Andrew Witty: The CEO also holds a notable share position, reinforcing his commitment to the company’s long-term success.


UnitedHealth Group’s impressive financial trajectory, robust board leadership, and significant institutional backing underscore its strong position in the healthcare industry. With a strategic focus on expanding its service offerings and maintaining operational excellence, UHG is well-positioned to continue its growth and deliver value to its stakeholders. The company’s ongoing investments in technology and innovation are likely to drive future success, ensuring that it remains a leader in the evolving healthcare landscape.

For more information on UnitedHealth Group, including live stock prices, news, and detailed financial data, please visit their official website: UnitedHealth Group.


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SOLANA (SOL)live Price, Charts and News


About Solana



Solana: A High-Performance Blockchain

Solana: A Brief History and Overview

Founding and Development

Solana, a high-performance blockchain platform, was founded in 2017 by Anatoly Yakovenko, a former Qualcomm engineer with extensive experience in distributed systems and compression algorithms. Yakovenko’s vision was to create a blockchain that could address the scalability issues plaguing existing platforms like Bitcoin and Ethereum. He teamed up with Greg Fitzgerald and Stephen Akridge, who brought their expertise in operating systems and GPU optimization to the project. Together, they aimed to develop a blockchain capable of supporting high throughput and low latency transactions.

Initial Launch and Growth

Solana was officially launched in March 2020 after three years of rigorous development and testing. The project quickly gained traction in the crypto community due to its innovative approach to scalability. Solana’s mainnet beta went live with support for smart contracts and a focus on providing a robust infrastructure for decentralized applications (dApps).

Total Supply and Tokenomics

The native cryptocurrency of the Solana network is SOL. At its genesis, Solana had a total supply of 500 million SOL tokens. However, the actual circulating supply is dynamic due to factors like staking rewards and token burns. Solana’s inflation schedule and tokenomics are designed to incentivize network participation and maintain long-term stability. As of 2024, the circulating supply of SOL stands at approximately 400 million tokens, though this number can fluctuate based on network activity and economic mechanisms.

Major Stakeholders

Solana’s growth and development have attracted significant investment and support from major stakeholders in the blockchain and cryptocurrency industry. Some of the prominent stakeholders include:

  1. Solana Labs: The core development team behind Solana, responsible for its initial creation and ongoing technical advancements.
  2. Solana Foundation: A non-profit organization dedicated to the adoption, growth, and decentralization of the Solana network.
  3. Andreessen Horowitz (a16z): A leading venture capital firm that has invested heavily in Solana, providing both financial support and strategic guidance.
  4. Polychain Capital: Another major venture capital firm known for its investments in blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies.
  5. Coinbase Ventures: The investment arm of Coinbase, one of the largest cryptocurrency exchanges, which has also invested in Solana.
  6. Alameda Research: A quantitative trading firm and liquidity provider in the cryptocurrency markets, closely associated with FTX exchange, which has been a major supporter of Solana.
  7. Multicoin Capital: A crypto-focused investment firm that has been an early and active investor in Solana, contributing to its ecosystem development.

Technological Innovations

One of Solana’s key innovations is its consensus mechanism, known as Proof of History (PoH). This unique approach to consensus allows the network to order transactions in a verifiable and consistent manner without the need for a central clock. PoH works in tandem with Solana’s Proof of Stake (PoS) mechanism to secure the network and enable high throughput. This dual approach allows Solana to process thousands of transactions per second, significantly outpacing many other blockchain platforms.


Objectives and Vision

The primary objective of Solana is to provide a scalable, secure, and decentralized infrastructure for dApps and decentralized finance (DeFi) projects. Solana aims to support global-scale applications without sacrificing decentralization or security. Its architecture is designed to handle high throughput and low latency, making it an attractive platform for developers looking to build high-performance applications.

Adoption and Ecosystem

Since its launch, Solana has seen significant adoption across various sectors. The Solana ecosystem hosts a wide range of projects, including decentralized exchanges (DEXs), non-fungible tokens (NFTs), and DeFi platforms. Major projects like Serum, a high-speed DEX, and Star Atlas, a blockchain-based game, have chosen Solana for its performance capabilities.

Event Date Details
Founding 2017 Anatoly Yakovenko, along with Greg Fitzgerald and Stephen Akridge, begins development of Solana.
Whitepaper Release 2018 Solana publishes its whitepaper, introducing Proof of History (PoH).
Mainnet Beta Launch March 2020 Solana’s mainnet beta goes live, supporting smart contracts and dApps.
Mainnet Launch June 2021 Solana transitions from beta to mainnet, marking a significant milestone.
Total Initial Supply 2020 500 million SOL tokens
Circulating Supply 2024 Approximately 400 million SOL tokens (subject to change due to staking and burns)
High-Performance DEX (Serum) Launch August 2020 Serum, a high-speed decentralized exchange, launches on Solana.


Feature Description
Symbol SOL
Launched March 2020
Founders Anatoly Yakovenko, Stefan Heidemann
Consensus Mechanism Proof-of-Stake (PoS)
Supply 488,400,000 (SOL)
Max Supply Infinite
Transaction Speed Up to 50,000 TPS
Use Cases DeFi, NFTs, Smart Contracts, dApps
Website Solana
Blockchain Explorer Solana Explorer






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Novo Nordisk A/S: A Comprehensive History and Founding Days


Novo Nordisk A/S, a Danish multinational pharmaceutical company, stands as one of the world’s leading firms in diabetes care and hormone therapy. With a rich history spanning nearly a century, Novo Nordisk has been at the forefront of innovation in medical science. This article explores the origins, foundational days, and the evolution of this global healthcare giant.

Founding and Early History


Novo Nordisk’s history dates back to the early 20th century and is rooted in the efforts to combat diabetes, a condition that had limited treatment options at the time.

The Birth of Insulin Production

In 1922, a crucial development in diabetes treatment occurred when Canadian scientists Frederick Banting and Charles Best discovered insulin. This breakthrough soon reached Europe, sparking interest among scientists and doctors.

Two Separate Entities: Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium and Novo Terapeutisk Laboratorium

Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium

Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium was founded in 1923 by August Krogh, a Nobel laureate in physiology, and his wife Marie Krogh, a medical doctor who was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. They were inspired by the discovery of insulin and aimed to produce it in Denmark to make it accessible to patients in Europe. With the help of H.C. Hagedorn, a prominent Danish doctor and biochemist, they established the Nordisk Insulin Foundation, which would later become Nordisk Insulinlaboratorium.

Novo Terapeutisk Laboratorium

A few years later, in 1925, two former employees of Nordisk, Harald Pedersen and Thorvald Pedersen, founded Novo Terapeutisk Laboratorium. The Pedersen brothers developed their own methods for producing insulin and quickly became direct competitors to Nordisk.

The Early Years

Both companies focused on insulin production but differed in their approaches to research, development, and marketing. Despite being competitors, they shared a common goal: to improve the quality of life for people with diabetes.

Innovations and Contributions

  • 1930s: Both companies made significant advancements in insulin production, including the development of extended-action insulin, which reduced the number of daily injections needed.
  • 1940s-1950s: Nordisk and Novo expanded their product lines to include other hormone treatments, such as growth hormones and anticoagulants.

Merger and Formation of Novo Nordisk

The Merger

In 1989, after more than six decades of competition, Nordisk and Novo decided to merge, forming Novo Nordisk A/S. The merger combined their resources, research, and expertise, creating a stronger entity capable of leading innovation in diabetes care and beyond.

Post-Merger Expansion

The merger marked the beginning of a new era for the company, characterized by rapid growth, international expansion, and diversification of its product portfolio.

Key Milestones

  • 1990s: Novo Nordisk expanded its global presence, establishing subsidiaries and production facilities worldwide. The company also ventured into new therapeutic areas, including hemophilia and hormone replacement therapy.
  • 2000s: The company focused on biopharmaceuticals, investing heavily in research and development. This period saw the launch of several groundbreaking products, including modern insulin analogs and GLP-1 receptor agonists for diabetes treatment.
  • 2010s: Novo Nordisk continued to innovate with new diabetes treatments and devices, such as insulin pens and continuous glucose monitoring systems. The company also emphasized sustainability and corporate social responsibility.

Leadership and Vision

The leadership at Novo Nordisk has played a crucial role in its success. The company has been guided by a vision to defeat diabetes and other serious chronic conditions, which is reflected in its long-term strategies and commitment to research.

Current Status and Future Prospects

Market Leadership

Today, Novo Nordisk is a global leader in diabetes care, holding a significant share of the insulin market. The company also excels in areas like obesity treatment, hemophilia, and growth hormone therapy.

Research and Development

Novo Nordisk invests heavily in R&D, focusing on innovative treatments for chronic diseases. The company is exploring new therapeutic areas and technologies, such as stem cell research and gene therapy, to address unmet medical needs.

Sustainability and Corporate Responsibility

Novo Nordisk is committed to sustainability and has set ambitious targets to reduce its environmental impact. The company is also involved in various initiatives to improve global health, particularly in underserved communities.

Future Prospects

With a strong pipeline of new products and a focus on cutting-edge research, Novo Nordisk is well-positioned to maintain its leadership in the pharmaceutical industry. The company aims to continue its legacy of innovation and expand its impact on global health.


Novo Nordisk’s journey from two small Danish laboratories to a global healthcare leader is a testament to its enduring commitment to improving lives through medical innovation. The company’s history is marked by significant achievements in diabetes care and hormone therapy, driven by a relentless pursuit of excellence and a vision to create a healthier world. As Novo Nordisk continues to evolve, its dedication to research, sustainability, and patient care remains at the heart of its mission.










Binance, one of the largest and most influential cryptocurrency exchanges in the world, has played a significant role in shaping the landscape of digital finance. Founded in 2017, it quickly rose to prominence due to its extensive range of services, user-friendly interface, and commitment to innovation. This article delves into the history, founding, and current status of Binance, including its supply details and major stakeholders.

Founding and Early History


Binance was founded by Changpeng Zhao, commonly known as CZ, and Yi He. Zhao, a seasoned developer and entrepreneur, had previously worked at Bloomberg Tradebook and served as the CTO of OKCoin, another cryptocurrency exchange. Yi He, also a co-founder of OKCoin, brought extensive marketing experience to the venture.

Launch and Initial Growth

Binance officially launched in July 2017, following an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) that raised $15 million. The ICO distributed Binance Coin (BNB), an ERC-20 token on the Ethereum blockchain, which later migrated to Binance’s own blockchain, Binance Chain.

The exchange differentiated itself by offering lower transaction fees, a wide variety of cryptocurrencies, and a robust trading engine capable of handling high volumes. Within six months, Binance became the largest cryptocurrency exchange by trading volume.

Expansion and Development

Key Milestones

  1. 2018: Binance launched the Binance Labs incubator to support blockchain and cryptocurrency startups and introduced the Binance Charity Foundation to contribute to social causes.
  2. 2019: The launch of Binance Chain and the decentralized exchange (DEX), Binance DEX, marked significant advancements. The same year, Binance acquired the Indian cryptocurrency platform WazirX and the popular cryptocurrency data provider CoinMarketCap.
  3. 2020: Binance introduced Binance Smart Chain (BSC), a blockchain network that runs parallel to Binance Chain and supports smart contracts and decentralized applications (dApps).
  4. 2021: The company faced increased regulatory scrutiny globally, prompting efforts to enhance compliance measures. Binance also launched NFT marketplaces and various decentralized finance (DeFi) projects.

Current Status

Products and Services

Binance offers a comprehensive suite of products and services:

  • Spot Trading: Supports hundreds of cryptocurrencies and trading pairs.
  • Futures and Derivatives: Allows trading of futures, options, and leveraged tokens.
  • Staking and Savings: Provides opportunities for users to earn interest on their crypto holdings.
  • Binance Card: Enables users to spend cryptocurrencies directly using a Visa card.
  • Decentralized Finance (DeFi): Features projects like Binance Smart Chain, PancakeSwap, and various yield farming initiatives.
  • Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs): A platform for creating, buying, and selling NFTs.

Supply Details

Binance Coin (BNB) is central to Binance’s ecosystem. Originally capped at 200 million BNB, the supply has been gradually reduced through quarterly coin burns, where a portion of BNB is permanently destroyed to decrease supply and potentially increase value. As of May 2024, the total supply of BNB stands at approximately 157 million, with the circulating supply being around 153 million.

Major Stakeholders

Binance remains a privately held company, with significant shares owned by its founders:

  • Changpeng Zhao (CZ): As the CEO and primary public figure, CZ holds a considerable stake in Binance. His leadership and vision have been pivotal in driving the company’s rapid growth.
  • Yi He: Co-founder and one of the early driving forces behind Binance’s marketing and operational strategies, she holds a substantial share in the company.

While exact figures regarding ownership stakes are not publicly disclosed, CZ and Yi He are recognized as the primary stakeholders.

Regulatory Environment

Binance’s global expansion has not been without challenges. Various regulatory bodies, including those in the United States, the United Kingdom, Japan, and other countries, have scrutinized Binance for compliance with local financial laws. In response, Binance has been proactive in enhancing its compliance framework, including implementing stricter Know Your Customer (KYC) and Anti-Money Laundering (AML) procedures, and acquiring regulatory licenses in multiple jurisdictions.


Binance’s journey from a startup to a global cryptocurrency powerhouse has been marked by rapid growth, innovation, and adaptability. With a broad range of services and a strong community of users, Binance continues to play a critical role in the evolving world of cryptocurrency and blockchain technology. As the regulatory landscape becomes more defined, Binance’s ability to navigate these challenges will be crucial in maintaining its leadership position in the industry.




Todays News Highlights May 18 2024

World in a Whirl: Top News Bites for May 18th, 2024

The world keeps spinning, and here’s a quick catch-up on some of today’s major headlines:

Natural Disaster Strikes Afghanistan:

Heavy rains and brutal floods have devastated central Afghanistan, leaving a trail of destruction. Shockingly, officials report at least 50 people have died in this disaster.

War and Diplomacy Collide: Meanwhile, the war in Ukraine rages on. In a show of defiance, Ukrainian President Zelenskyy visited the war-torn city of Kharkiv. However, a glimmer of hope emerged as Russia’s Putin met with China’s Xi Jinping. While the details of their discussions remain unclear, the world watches anxiously to see if this meeting might pave the way for peace talks.

Safety Concerns in Canada: Canada is grappling with a double dose of troubling news. Just days before a deadly shooting in Toronto, authorities revealed they had arrested a suspect. This raises serious questions about security measures and leaves many wondering how such a tragedy could occur. Furthermore, Canadian investigators believe an American serial killer suspect may be responsible for the unsolved murders of four young people in Calgary. This chilling development has brought renewed urgency to the search for this dangerous individual.

Escalating Tensions in the Middle East: The ongoing conflict between Israel and Gaza has taken a tragic turn. Three Israeli hostages, including a German national, were found dead, marking a significant escalation in violence.

Climate Activists Make Their Mark: Climate change remains a pressing issue. Airport operations were disrupted in Germany and Munich as climate activists staged protests, highlighting the urgency of tackling environmental concerns.

Cold Cases Get Hot: There may be a breakthrough in some long-standing Canadian murder cases. New evidence suggests these cold cases might be linked to a U.S. serial rapist. This development offers renewed hope for families who have waited years for answers.

The Fly on the Wall: French authorities are on a high alert after a notorious prisoner nicknamed “The Fly” escaped during a deadly ambush. A massive search is underway to recapture this dangerous fugitive.

Beyond the Headlines:

  • Ancient Egypt’s Secrets Unveiled? New scientific evidence points to a long-lost river, potentially solving the mystery of how the Egyptian pyramids were built.
  • Lucky Lottery Winners! A couple’s unwavering dedication paid off after playing the same lottery numbers for an incredible 38 years! They are now celebrating a life-changing win.
  • QR Code Quandary: The upcoming Paris Olympics is sparking debate over digital exclusion as organizers plan to use QR codes for entry.
  • Divine Intervention? The Vatican has issued new guidelines, stating that only the Pope has the authority to determine if visions are truly divine.
  • Referance: GEMINI

How IPL Become Most Expensive Circket League

The IPL isn’t your average cricket league. It’s a full-on entertainment package that’s become the undisputed champion of cricket tournaments worldwide. Launched in 2008, it quickly skyrocketed to fame. But how did it achieve such dominance? Let’s break it down!

Capitalizing on Cricket’s Passion

India’s love for cricket is legendary. In fact, the IPL understood this passion and created city-based teams. Fans became super fans, cheering on their local heroes. Moreover, they added another twist: short, action-packed Twenty20 matches. This fast-paced format is perfect for our busy lives and keeps everyone on the edge of their seats.

From Cricket to Cricktainment!

The IPL goes beyond just the sport. It’s a full-blown entertainment experience. Think cheerleaders, dazzling opening ceremonies, celebrity appearances, and fancy technology. This way, this “Cricktainment” fun attracts even those who might not be die-hard cricket fans.

Star Power on Steroids

Imagine seeing Indian legends like Sachin Tendulkar or Virat Kohli playing alongside international superstars! That’s precisely the kind of star power the IPL brings. This incredible line-up isn’t just exciting for India; it’s a global spectacle that cricket fans worldwide can’t miss.

Big Money, Big Business

The IPL’s business model is a game-changer. With city-owned teams and a massive player auction, big sponsorships and investments came flooding in. This made the league financially strong, allowing them to attract top players with high salaries – another factor that ups the glamour factor.

Spreading the Cricket Love Around the World

The IPL didn’t just focus on India. They leveraged technology and partnerships to broadcast matches worldwide. Fans can now watch live streams on various platforms, no matter where they are. Consequently, this global reach turned the IPL from a local favorite into a worldwide phenomenon.

The IPL’s Recipe for Success

The IPL’s recipe for success is simple: combine top-notch cricket with high-energy entertainment. It’s a winning formula that’s redefined how we watch cricket and set a new standard for sports leagues worldwide. Undoubtedly, the IPL isn’t going anywhere; it’s here to stay, keeping cricket fans around the world entertained for years to come.

Referance; Gemini

Eli Lilly and Company Charts and Financials

Symbol Overview

 Company Charts


Company History and Present days

Eli Lilly and Company: From Humble Beginnings to Global Leadership

Founding and Early Days

Eli Lilly and Company was founded in May 1876 by Colonel Eli Lilly, a pharmaceutical chemist and Union Army veteran, in Indianapolis, Indiana. Initially, the company began with just three employees, including Lilly’s son Josiah (J.K.) Lilly. Early on, they focused on the production of medicinal drugs. Their first major success came with the manufacture of quinine, a compound used to treat malaria. By the end of its first year, sales had already exceeded $4,900, and within three years, they had surged to $48,000​ (Encyclopedia Britannica)​.

Moreover, this early success led to rapid growth. Eli Lilly brought his brother James on board as the company’s first salesman, which helped to establish a national market presence. By 1881, the company was officially incorporated, and J.K. Lilly, after graduating from the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, returned to the company as a pharmaceutical chemist and was appointed superintendent of its research laboratory. Under his leadership, the company continued to expand, becoming one of the largest employers in Indianapolis by the end of the 19th century​ (Encyclopedia Britannica)​.

Growth and Innovations

As the company entered the 20th century, it continued to innovate and expand. For instance, in 1913, Lilly established a plant dedicated exclusively to capsule production, and shortly after, Lilly Biological Laboratories were created in Greenfield, Indiana. These facilities were instrumental in developing significant innovations such as gelatin capsules, which improved medication administration and dosage accuracy​ (Encyclopedia Britannica)​.

Additionally, one of Eli Lilly’s most significant contributions to medicine came in the 1920s with the mass production of insulin. Partnering with researchers from the University of Toronto, Lilly became the first company to produce insulin on a large scale. This innovation revolutionized diabetes treatment and saved countless lives​ (Encyclopedia Britannica)​.

Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, the company continued to expand its product line and improve its manufacturing processes. For example, the introduction of straight-line production allowed for more efficient and cost-effective manufacturing. This innovation contributed to record profits, even during the Great Depression​ (Encyclopedia Britannica)​.

Video Referance : Yahoo

Modern Era and Recent Developments

In recent years, Eli Lilly has maintained its position as a leader in the pharmaceutical industry. The company has focused heavily on developing treatments for diabetes and obesity. For instance, its diabetes drugs like Trulicity, Mounjaro, and Jardiance have achieved significant market success. In 2023, Lilly introduced Zepbound, an injectable medication for obesity and weight-related conditions, underscoring its commitment to addressing major health issues​ (Fierce Pharma)​​ (Encyclopedia Britannica)​.

Reference Company You tube Channel: LLY

Current Leadership and Investor Relations

As of 2024, Eli Lilly and Company remains a publicly traded entity, listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol LLY. The company employs over 42,900 people globally and continues to be headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana​ (Encyclopedia Britannica)​.

Eli Lilly’s current board of directors includes leaders from various industries, ensuring a diverse range of expertise and perspectives. Key members include David A. Ricks, the Chairman and CEO, who has been with the company for over two decades. Other prominent figures from finance, healthcare, and technology sectors also serve on the board, providing strategic oversight and direction.

Investors continue to show confidence in Eli Lilly, driven by its strong pipeline of new drugs and consistent financial performance. For example, the company’s focus on innovative treatments and expanding global reach positions it well for future growth. In 2024, Eli Lilly is expected to generate nearly $5 billion in new sales, further cementing its market leadership alongside competitors like Novo Nordisk​ (Fierce Pharma)​.


Eli Lilly and Company’s journey from a small pharmaceutical startup to a global industry leader is marked by continuous innovation and a commitment to improving health worldwide. With a rich history of groundbreaking developments and a forward-looking approach to new treatments, Eli Lilly remains at the forefront of the pharmaceutical industry, poised for continued success in the years to come. For more detailed information on Eli Lilly’s history and latest developments, resources like FiercePharma and Britannica offer comprehensive insights into the company’s ongoing contributions to medical science and its future prospects​ (Fierce Pharma)​​ (Encyclopedia Britannica)​.

Share Ownership Structure

as May 18 2024

Company News



Berkshire Hathaway Charts and Financials Data


About Company

Berkshire Hathaway, Inc engages in the provision of property and casualty insurance and reinsurance, utilities and energy, freight rail transportation, finance, manufacturing, and retailing services. It operates through following segments: GEICO, Berkshire Hathaway Reinsurance Group, Berkshire Hathaway Primary Group, Burlington Northern Santa Fe, LLC (BNSF), Berkshire Hathaway Energy, McLane Company, Manufacturing, and Service and Retailing. The GEICO segment involves in underwriting private passenger automobile insurance mainly by direct response methods. The Berkshire Hathaway Reinsurance Group segment consists of underwriting excess-of-loss and quota-share and facultative reinsurance worldwide. The Berkshire Hathaway Primary Group segment comprises of underwriting multiple lines of property and casualty insurance policies for primarily commercial accounts. The BNSF segment operates railroad systems in North America. The Berkshire Hathaway Energy segments deals with regulated electric and gas utility, including power generation and distribution activities, and real estate brokerage activities. The McLane Company segment offers wholesale distribution of groceries and non-food items. The Manufacturing segment includes industrial and end-user products, building products, and apparel. The Service and Retailing segment provides fractional aircraft ownership programs, aviation pilot training, electronic components distribution, and various retailing businesses, including automobile dealerships, and trailer and furniture leasing. The company was founded by Oliver Chace in 1839 and is headquartered in Omaha, NE.

Reference: Trading view 

 Financial Data

Company News



नबिलबैंकको प्रमुख कार्यकारी अधिकृतमा पुन: ढुङ्गाना नियुक्त

Source: Merolagani

नबिल बैंक लिमिटेडद्वारा बैंकका प्रमुख कार्यकारी अधिकृत ज्ञानेन्द्र प्रसाद ढुङ्गानालाई दोस्रो कार्यकालकालागि पुनः नियुक्त गरिएको छ ।

मिति २०८१ सालजेठ २ गते बसेको नबिल बैंकको सञ्चालक समितिको बैठकले ढुङ्गानालाई २०८१ सालअसार १७ गतेदेखि लागूहुने गरी थपदुई वर्षकालागि प्रमुख कार्यकारी अधिकृत पदमा पुनःनियुक्त गरेको हो ।

नेपाल राष्ट्र बैंक लगायत विभिन्न वाणिज्य बैंकको व्यवस्थापनतह तथा नेतृत्वदायी भूमिकामा रही २७ वर्ष भन्दा बढी बैंकिङ्ग क्षेत्रको अनुभव बटुलिसकेका ढुङ्गानालाई कुशल नेतृत्व र कार्यशैलीकै कारण सञ्चालक समितिले थपदुई वर्षका लागि पुनःबहाली गरेको बैंकले जनाएको छ ।

राष्ट्रिय र अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय अर्थतन्त्र तथा बैंकिङ्ग क्षेत्रको विज्ञता तथा अनुभव समेत हासिल गरेका ढुङ्गाना देशको अर्थतन्त्रको आवश्यकता बमोजिम विषम परिस्थितिमा समेत कुशल नेतृत्वको क्षमता राख्ने प्रमुख कार्यकारी अधिकृतको रूपमा परिचित छन् । पेशाले चार्टड एकाउन्टेन्ट रहेका ढुङ्गानाको पूर्वाधार विकास तथा निर्माण परियोजना सम्बन्धी बैंकिङ्ग लगानीको क्षेत्रमा विशेष दख्खल रहेको मानिन्छ ।

नबिल बैंकमा प्रमुख कार्यकारी अधिकृतको पद सम्हाल्नु पूर्व नेपालबङ्गलादेश बैंक लिमिटेडको प्रमुख कार्यकारी अधिकृतका रूपमा १० वर्षसम्म नेतृत्व गरेको अनुभव ढुङ्गानासँग रहेको छ । नेपाल बङ्गलादेश बैंक लिमिटेड नबिल बैंक लिमिटेडमा गाभिए पश्चात् ढुङ्गानाको सबल नेतृत्व र पहलमा सम्पन्न भएको दुबै बैंकको व्यवसाय तथा कर्मचारी समायोजन र व्यवस्थापन बैंकिङ्ग क्षेत्रमै उदाहरणीय रहेको छ । यस बाहेक ढुङ्गानासँग नेपाल क्रेडिट एन्ड कमर्स बैंकको महाप्रबन्धक तथा नेपाल राष्ट्र बैंकको निर्देशक पदमा रही कार्य गरेको लामो अनुभवसमेत रहेको छ । नबिल बैंकको शाख र विश्वसनीयतालाई थप उचाइमा पु-याउने सन्दर्भमा ढुङ्गानाको पछिल्लो कार्यकाललाई उपलब्धिमूलक मानिएको छ ।

भारतबाट चार्टर्ड एकाउन्टेन्सी  र अस्ट्रेलियाबाट सर्टिफाइडपब्लिक एकाउन्टेन्ट तथा वित्तीय विश्लेषणमा स्नातकोत्तरतहको अध्ययन पूरा गरेका ढुङ्गानालाई नेपालको बैंकिङ्ग क्षेत्रमा पु-याएको उत्कृष्ट योगदानकालागि सन् २०२२ मा राष्ट्रपतिबाट प्रबल जनसेवाश्री पदकद्वारा विभुषित गरिएको थियो । साथै ढुङ्गाना सन् २०१३ मा नेपाल व्यवस्थापन संघद्वारा म्यानेजर टु वाच अवार्ड र सन् २०१५ मा म्यानेजर अफ द इयर अवार्ड विधामा पुरस्कृत व्यक्तित्व हुन् । प्रमुख कार्यकारी अधिकृत ढुङ्गानासँग सन् २०१८ मा नेपालका वाणिज्य बैंकहरूको छाता सङ्गठन नेपाल बैंकर्स संघको अध्यक्षका रूपमा नेपालको बैंकिङ्ग क्षेत्रको नेतृत्व गरेको अनुभव समेत रहेको छ ।

नबिलबैंक लिमिटेडको प्रमुखकार्यकारी अधिकृतमा पुनः नियुक्त ढुङ्गानाको कुशल र सक्षम नेतृत्वमा आगामी दिनमा नबिल बैंक लिमिटेडले विभिन्न वित्तीय सूचकाङ्कहरूमा अग्रणी स्थान हासिल गर्दै थप उचाइ प्राप्त गर्ने बैंकले आशा गरेकाे छ ।



Company Financials

Company Profile

Company News

Data From Trading View

Referance : Chatgpt


Why You Should Have Knowledge about inflation

Understanding Inflation: Causes, Effects, and How to Protect Your Finances

Inflation is a crucial economic concept that affects everyone, from individuals to businesses to governments. By understanding inflation, its causes, and its impacts, you can make better financial decisions and protect your wealth.

What is Inflation?

In simple terms, inflation is the rate at which the general level of prices for goods and services rises. As a result, it leads to a decrease in purchasing power. Essentially, when inflation occurs, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services than it did before.

To measure inflation, economists typically use price indices. The most common ones are:

  • Consumer Price Index (CPI):
  • This measures the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services.

  • Producer Price Index (PPI):
  • This measures the average change over time in the selling prices received by domestic producers for their output.

Causes of Inflation

  1. Demand-Pull Inflation: This occurs when the demand for goods and services exceeds their supply. When consumers have more money to spend, and the supply of goods doesn’t increase correspondingly, prices rise.

  2. Cost-Push Inflation: On the other hand, this type happens when the costs of production increase, leading producers to raise prices to maintain their profit margins. Common triggers include rising wages, increased costs of raw materials, and higher taxes.

  3. Built-In Inflation: Also known as wage-price inflation, it occurs when workers demand higher wages, and employers pass these costs onto consumers through higher prices. This can create a feedback loop of rising wages and prices.

  4. Monetary Inflation: Finally, this results from an increase in the money supply. When a central bank prints more money, it can reduce the value of the currency, leading to higher prices.

Effects of Inflation

  1. Decreased Purchasing Power: As prices rise, the value of money falls. Consequently, the amount of goods and services you can buy with the same amount of money decreases.

  2. Cost of Living Increases: Inflation leads to higher costs for everyday expenses, including food, housing, and healthcare. Therefore, it becomes more expensive to maintain the same standard of living.

  3. Impact on Savings: Inflation erodes the value of money saved. If the interest rate on savings is lower than the inflation rate, the real value of savings decreases over time.

  4. Uncertainty and Planning Difficulties: High and unpredictable inflation can make it difficult for businesses and consumers to plan for the future. It complicates budgeting and investment decisions.

  5. Interest Rates: Central banks often raise interest rates to combat high inflation. As a result, this can lead to higher borrowing costs for consumers and businesses.

How to Protect Your Finances from Inflation

  1. Invest in Inflation-Hedged Assets: Certain investments, such as real estate, commodities (like gold), and Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (TIPS), tend to perform well during periods of high inflation.

  2. Diversify Your Portfolio: A well-diversified investment portfolio can help protect against inflation. Stocks, particularly those of companies with pricing power, can provide some hedge against inflation.

  3. Consider Inflation-Indexed Bonds: Bonds like TIPS in the U.S. offer returns adjusted for inflation, protecting the purchasing power of your investment.

  4. Invest in Hard Assets: Real estate and tangible assets often retain value better during inflationary periods compared to cash.

  5. Increase Earnings: Enhancing your skills and education can help you secure better-paying jobs or negotiate higher wages, offsetting the impact of inflation on your purchasing power.

  6. Monitor and Adjust Budgets: Regularly reviewing and adjusting your budget to account for rising prices can help manage the impact of inflation on your expenses.


Inflation is an inevitable part of the economic landscape, impacting purchasing power and the cost of living. However, by understanding its causes and effects, and by taking proactive steps to protect your finances, you can mitigate the adverse effects of inflation. Wise investment choices, diversification, and strategic financial planning are key to maintaining and growing your wealth in an inflationary environment. Understanding inflation helps in making informed decisions that safeguard your financial future.



How Compounding Really Works

The Power of Compound Interest: How It Works and Why It Matters

Compound interest is a fundamental concept in finance that can significantly impact your financial growth over time. Understanding how it works and its benefits can motivate you to start investing early and make informed financial decisions.

What is Compound Interest?

Compound interest is the process of earning interest on both the principal amount and the accumulated interest from previous periods. Unlike simple interest, which is calculated only on the principal amount, compound interest grows exponentially as it includes interest on interest.

How Compound Interest Works

To understand compound interest, consider this formula:



  • 𝐴 is the amount of money accumulated after n years, including interest.

  • 𝑃 is the principal amount (the initial sum of money).

  • 𝑟 is the annual interest rate (decimal).

  • 𝑛 is the number of times that interest is compounded per year.

  • 𝑡 is the number of years the money is invested or borrowed for.


If you invest $1,000 at an annual interest rate of 5%, compounded annually, for 10 years, the future value of your investment would be:


After 10 years, your $1,000 investment grows to approximately $1,628.89, thanks to compound interest.

Benefits of Compound Interest

  1. Exponential Growth:

  2. The most compelling benefit of compound interest is its exponential growth. Over time, even small amounts of money can grow significantly, especially when left to compound over long periods.

  3. Early Investment Advantage:

  4. Starting early allows your investments more time to grow. The earlier you start, the more you benefit from compounding, making a strong case for early investment.

  5. Wealth Accumulation:

  6. Compound interest can substantially increase your wealth. For example, consistently investing small amounts can lead to a sizable portfolio over several decades.

  7. Financial Goals:

  8. It helps you achieve financial goals such as retirement savings, education funds, and wealth creation more efficiently.

The Rule of 72

A simple way to estimate how long it will take for an investment to double is the Rule of 72. By dividing 72 by your annual interest rate, you get an approximation of the number of years needed for doubling your investment.

For example, if your annual interest rate is 6%, it will take approximately:

726=12 years

This quick calculation underscores the power of compounding and the importance of a decent interest rate.

Compound Interest in Practice

  1. Savings Accounts:

  2. High-yield savings accounts and certificates of deposit (CDs) use compound interest to grow your savings over time.

  3. Retirement Accounts:

  4. Accounts like 401(k)s and IRAs benefit immensely from compounding, making them ideal for long-term retirement savings.

  5. Investments:

  6. Stocks, bonds, and mutual funds, when held over long periods, benefit from compound growth, especially when dividends and interest are reinvested.

Maximizing Compound Interest

  • Start Early:

  • The earlier you start investing, the more time your money has to grow.
  • Regular Contributions:

  • Consistently adding to your investments increases the compounding effect.

  • Reinvest Earnings:

  • Reinvest dividends and interest to enhance growth.

  • Choose Higher Interest Rates:

  • Opt for investments with higher returns, but be mindful of the associated risks.

  • Minimize Fees:

  • Lower fees mean more of your money stays invested and benefits from compounding.


Compound interest is a powerful financial principle that significantly impacts long-term wealth accumulation. By starting early, making regular contributions, and choosing investments wisely, you can harness the power of compound interest to achieve your financial goals and secure a prosperous future. Understanding and leveraging compound interest is a key strategy for anyone looking to build wealth over time.


Why to Learn Investing Early

Learning to invest early in life is highly beneficial for several reasons, which include financial growth, habit formation, and better understanding of the market. Here’s a detailed look at why starting early is advantageous:

1. Compound Interest

  • Growth Over Time:

  • The most significant advantage of investing early is the power of compound interest. Compounding means earning interest on your interest, which over a long period can lead to exponential growth of your investments. The earlier you start, the more time your money has to grow.

2. Financial Independence

  • Long-Term Wealth:

  • Starting to invest early sets you on the path to financial independence. By accumulating wealth gradually, you can achieve long-term financial goals such as buying a home, funding education, or retirement.

3. Risk Tolerance

  • Greater Risk Capacity:

  • Younger investors can typically take on more risk because they have more time to recover from potential losses. This allows for investing in higher-risk, higher-reward assets, which can yield greater returns over time.

4. Learning and Experience

  • Market Familiarity:

  • Investing early provides a learning experience. You become more familiar with the market, understand economic trends, and learn how different investment strategies work. This experience is invaluable and can help you make better investment decisions as you age.

5. Financial Discipline

  • Habits and Discipline:

  • Early investing encourages financial discipline. It helps you develop the habit of saving and investing regularly, which is essential for long-term financial success. Budgeting, saving, and investing become ingrained behaviors.

6. Goal Setting

  • Achieving Goals:

  • Early investing helps in setting and achieving financial goals. Whether it’s short-term goals like a vacation or long-term goals like retirement, starting early gives you a better chance to achieve them without significant stress.

7. Inflation Hedge

  • Combatting Inflation:

  • Investing helps protect your money from inflation. Cash loses value over time due to rising prices, but smart investments typically grow at a rate that outpaces inflation, preserving and increasing your purchasing power.

8. Tax Benefits

  • Utilizing Tax Advantages:

  • Many investment accounts offer tax advantages that can benefit you more the longer they’re used. Accounts like Roth IRAs or 401(k)s provide tax-free growth or tax-deferred contributions, maximizing your savings over time.

9. Peace of Mind

  • Financial Security:

  • Knowing you have a growing investment portfolio provides peace of mind. It reduces financial anxiety and ensures you are better prepared for unforeseen expenses or economic downturns.


Starting to invest early is a crucial step towards securing your financial future. The benefits of compounding, gaining experience, developing good financial habits, and achieving financial goals make it one of the best decisions you can make. Early investment provides a foundation for wealth building and financial stability, ensuring you can enjoy the fruits of your efforts later in life.

Referance: CHATGPT

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ARM HOLDINGS PLC(ARM) – Charts and Financials


Arm Holdings plc, often simply referred to as Arm, is a British multinational semiconductor and software design company. Headquartered in Cambridge, England, Arm is renowned for its pioneering role in the development of advanced processor architectures that are integral to a wide array of electronic devices globally.


Arm was founded in 1990 as a joint venture between Acorn Computers, Apple Inc., and VLSI Technology. The company initially focused on designing RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) processors, which are known for their efficiency and performance. Over the years, Arm’s technology has become foundational to many modern computing devices.

Core Business and Products:

Arm’s primary business revolves around designing and licensing intellectual property (IP) for semiconductor processors. Rather than manufacturing chips themselves, Arm licenses its designs to other companies that produce chips for various applications. Key product lines include:

  • Cortex-M Series:

  • Targeted at microcontrollers and embedded systems, widely used in Internet of Things (IoT) devices.

  • Cortex-A Series:

  • High-performance processors found in smartphones, tablets, and laptops.

  • Mali GPUs:

  • Graphics processing units used in mobile devices and other embedded systems.

  • Neoverse:

  • Processor designs aimed at infrastructure applications, including servers and networking equipment.

Business Model:

Arm’s business model is based on licensing its processor designs to semiconductor companies, which then integrate these designs into their own chips. This model involves an initial licensing fee followed by royalties based on the volume of chips produced. This approach has allowed Arm to achieve broad penetration across various markets without directly engaging in manufacturing.

Market Presence:

Arm’s technology is embedded in a vast majority of mobile devices, making it a dominant player in the smartphone and tablet markets. Beyond mobile, Arm processors are increasingly used in other areas such as:

  • Automotive:

  • Arm designs are used in advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) and emerging autonomous driving technologies.

  • Data Centers:

  • High-performance, energy-efficient Arm processors are used in servers.

  • IoT:

  • Arm’s low-power processors are ideal for a wide range of connected devices, from smart home gadgets to industrial IoT applications.

Ownership and Strategic Moves:

Arm was acquired by the Japanese conglomerate SoftBank Group in 2016 for approximately $32 billion. In September 2020, Nvidia announced plans to acquire Arm from SoftBank for $40 billion. However, this acquisition faced significant regulatory scrutiny and challenges, particularly from competition authorities concerned about the potential impacts on the semiconductor industry.

Innovation and Future Prospects:

Arm continues to innovate, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML). Its latest processor designs are optimized for handling AI and ML workloads, positioning the company well for the future of computing. Additionally, Arm is enhancing the security features of its architectures to address growing cybersecurity concerns.

Arm’s ongoing research and development efforts aim to maintain its competitive edge and expand its influence across emerging technologies. The company’s role in driving advancements in performance, efficiency, and scalability ensures its continued relevance in the tech industry.


Arm Holdings plc is a critical player in the global technology landscape, with its processor designs forming the backbone of countless electronic devices. By focusing on innovation and expanding its IP portfolio, Arm is poised to remain at the forefront of technological advancement, influencing a wide range of industries from mobile computing to data centers and beyond.

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Chang’e-6 is just the tip of China’s

China’s Chang’e-6 mission, launched on May 3rd, is one of China’s most ambitious space missions, aiming to collect lunar samples from the far side of the Moon and return them safely to Earth. The mission involves a complex series of maneuvers, including landing a lander within the Apollo crater using a communications relay satellite, collecting samples, transferring them to an ascender, docking with the orbiter, and finally returning the samples to Earth.

These lunar samples, particularly from the South Pole-Aitken Basin, are expected to provide valuable insights into the Moon’s geological history and the early Solar System. The mission serves as a stepping stone for China’s larger space ambitions, including crewed lunar missions planned before 2030 and establishing a lunar base in the future.

The mission’s rendezvous and docking element, though not essential for a sample return, is crucial for future crewed lunar missions, showcasing China’s readiness for more extensive lunar exploration endeavors. China’s space program demonstrates its scientific, economic, and geopolitical motivations, including the development of technologies like nuclear reactors for lunar power and participation in an International Lunar Research Station.

China’s space program is comprehensive, encompassing not only lunar exploration but also endeavors in astronomy, astrophysics, and exoplanet detection. Future missions include sampling near-Earth asteroids, visiting comets, exploring Mars, and even considering missions to the ice giants Uranus or Neptune. Additionally, China is exploring commercializing space and its resources, exemplified by discussions of creating an Earth-Moon economic zone.

Ultimately, Chang’e-6 represents China’s push towards becoming a major player in space exploration, with ambitions extending beyond lunar missions to deeper space exploration and commercial endeavors.


How To Learn Java Script Easily


Hey there! So, you’re interested in diving into JavaScript? Awesome! It’s like unlocking a whole new world of coding possibilities. Whether you’re just starting out or looking to level up your skills, learning JavaScript opens doors to all sorts of cool stuff, from building websites to creating games and mobile apps. Let’s kick things off and see where this journey takes us!


1. Start with the Basics:

  • Online Tutorials: There are lots of free resources out there. Try websites like Codecademy or freeCodeCamp.

  • Books: “Eloquent JavaScript” is a great book for beginners.

  • Video Tutorials: Check out YouTube channels like Traversy Media for easy-to-follow videos.

2. Practice, Practice, Practice:

  • Code Along: Follow along with tutorials and try coding yourself.

  • Projects: Start with simple projects like a to-do list or a calculator. Then move on to more challenging stuff.

3. Learn the Concepts:

  • Variables and Data Types: Learn how to use variables and different types of data.

  • Functions: Understand how functions work and how to use them.

  • Control Flow: Learn about if/else statements, loops, and switch statements.

4. Dig Deeper:

  • Asynchronous JavaScript: Get into callbacks, promises, and async/await.

  • ES6+ Features: Explore modern JavaScript features like arrow functions and template literals.

  • Event Handling: Learn how to handle user interactions on websites.

5. Tools and Libraries:

  • Git and GitHub: Learn the basics of version control with Git and GitHub.

  • Frameworks and Libraries: Once you’re comfortable, try out libraries like React or Vue.js.

  • Developer Tools: Get familiar with browser developer tools for debugging.

6. Keep Learning:

  • Stay Updated: JavaScript changes, so keep learning new features and best practices.

  • Online Communities: Join communities like Stack Overflow or Reddit’s r/learnjavascript for help and discussions.

7. Build Stuff:

  • Freelancing: Offer to build small projects for local businesses.

  • Open Source: Contribute to JavaScript projects on GitHub.

  • Personal Projects: Build things that interest you or solve problems you care about.

8. Be Consistent:

  • Daily Practice: Try to code a little bit every day. Consistency is key to learning!

Learning JavaScript is like learning any new skill—it takes time and practice. Don’t rush it, and celebrate your progress along the way!


And there you have it—your journey into the world of JavaScript begins! Just remember, the secret sauce to mastering JavaScript is practice, persistence, and keeping that curiosity alive. Pretty soon, you’ll be building projects that’ll make your friends go, “Wow, how’d you do that?” So, keep coding, keep exploring, and enjoy the ride! 🚀🌟



AirBnb- History and Present Days


Company  Financials

Company History

In the vast landscape of modern travel, one company stands out as a pioneer in changing the way people experience lodging. Airbnb, the brainchild of Brian Chesky, Joe Gebbia, and Nathan Blecharczyk, has not only revolutionized the accommodation industry but has also transformed the very concept of hospitality.

Genesis of an Idea

The story of Airbnb begins in 2007 when two friends, Brian Chesky and Joe Gebbia, struggling to pay rent in San Francisco, had a seemingly crazy idea: renting out air mattresses on their apartment floor to attendees of a design conference when all the hotels were booked. They quickly set up a simple website, “Air Bed and Breakfast,” offering accommodations complete with breakfast. To their surprise, they found three guests willing to pay $80 per night for a place to sleep. This marked the humble beginnings of what would become Airbnb.

The Evolution of a Concept

Joined by Nathan Blecharczyk, the trio began to refine their idea, recognizing the potential for a platform that allowed anyone to rent out their extra space. In 2008, they officially launched “Airbnb,” a platform that connected hosts with travelers looking for unique and affordable accommodations.

Initially, the concept faced skepticism and even ridicule. Critics doubted whether people would be willing to stay in strangers’ homes. However, Chesky, Gebbia, and Blecharczyk persevered, and their platform began to gain traction. They realized they were not just providing a place to stay but offering travelers a chance to immerse themselves in the local culture, to live like locals, and forge connections with their hosts.

Overcoming Challenges

Despite their vision, Airbnb encountered numerous challenges in its early days. One of the most significant hurdles was gaining trust. To address this, they implemented measures such as user reviews, verified profiles, and secure payment systems to reassure both hosts and guests. They also had to navigate legal and regulatory obstacles as they expanded into new markets, facing resistance from traditional hoteliers and municipalities concerned about safety and tax issues.

Meteoric Rise

By 2011, Airbnb had gained significant traction, with over 1 million nights booked on the platform. It attracted attention from investors who recognized its disruptive potential. With funding and support, the company expanded globally, reaching every corner of the world. Today, Airbnb boasts millions of listings across more than 220 countries and regions.

Impact and Legacy

The impact of Airbnb goes beyond just disrupting the hotel industry. It has empowered individuals to become micro-entrepreneurs, allowing them to monetize their extra space and create unique experiences for travelers. It has also transformed the way people travel, offering a more personalized and authentic alternative to traditional hotels.

Furthermore, Airbnb has sparked conversations about the sharing economy, prompting discussions about trust, community, and the future of work. It has inspired countless other startups and businesses to rethink established industries and embrace innovation.


The founding days of Airbnb were marked by audacity, creativity, and perseverance. What started as a simple solution to a rent problem has grown into a global phenomenon, reshaping the way people think about travel and hospitality. The story of Airbnb is a testament to the power of disruptive ideas and the importance of embracing change in an ever-evolving world. As we look to the future, Airbnb continues to lead the way in redefining how we experience the world, one stay at a time.

Reference: Chatgpt


दिल्लीका मुख्यमन्त्री अरविन्द केजरीवाल रिहा हुँदै

दिल्लीका मुख्यमन्त्री अरविन्द केजरीवाल रिहा हुने भएका छन् । सर्वोच्च अदालतले केजरीवाललाई जुन १ सम्मको लागि अन्तरिम जमानत दिएको हाे। केजरीवालले दिल्ली मदिराकाे नीतिगत घोटालासँग सम्बन्धित मनी लान्ड्रिंग मुद्दामा ईडी अनुसन्धानको सामना गरिरहेका थिए ।

उनी हाल तिहाड जेलमा छन् । केजरीवाललाई (अहिले निष्क्रिय) दिल्ली एक्साइज नीति २०२१-२२ मा कथित अनियमिततासँग सम्बन्धित मनी लान्ड्रिंग अनुसन्धानको सम्बन्धमा ईडीले मार्च २१ मा पक्राउ गरेको थियो।

ईडीले केजरीवालको जमानत आवेदनको विरोध गर्दै सर्वाेच्च अदालतमा शपथ पत्र दायर गरेको थियो। जसमा केन्द्रीय निकायले निर्वाचनमा प्रचारप्रसार गर्ने अधिकार मौलिक हक र संवैधानिक अधिकार नभएको बताएको थियो । साेही समयमा, केजरीवालका वकिलहरूकाे टोलीले ईडीको शपथपत्रमा कडा आपत्ति जनाएको थियो। तर,ईडीका सबै तर्कलाई बेवास्ता गर्दै अदालतले केजरीवाललाई अन्तरिम जमानत दिएको हाे।

Source: Merolaani

How to Print Hello World in Html

Title: Getting Started with HTML: Printing “Hello, World!”


HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is the backbone of the web, used to structure and present content on the internet. One of the simplest tasks in web development is printing “Hello, World!” on a webpage. In this article, we’ll guide you through the basic steps to achieve this using HTML.

Step 1:

Setting Up Your HTML File To get started, create a new HTML file using a text editor like Notepad, Sublime Text, or Visual Studio Code. You can name the file whatever you like, but it should have a .html extension. For example, hello.html.

Step 2:

Writing the HTML Code Once you’ve created the file, open it in your text editor and add the following code:



<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<meta charset="UTF-8">
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
<title>Hello, World!</title>
<h1>Hello, World!</h1>


Let’s break down what each part of this code does:

  • <!DOCTYPE html>: This declaration defines the document type and version of HTML being used.

  • <html lang="en">: The opening tag for the HTML document. The lang="en" attribute specifies the language of the document (English, in this case).

  • <head>: This section contains metadata about the document, such as the character encoding and the title of the page.

  • <meta charset="UTF-8">: Specifies the character encoding for the document as UTF-8, which supports most characters from all languages.

  • <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">: Sets the viewport properties to ensure proper rendering and scaling on various devices.

  • <title>Hello, World!</title>: Sets the title of the webpage, which appears in the browser tab.

  • <body>: This is the main content of the webpage.

  • <h1>Hello, World!</h1>: This is a heading element (<h1>) that contains the text “Hello, World!”.

Step 3:

Saving and Previewing After adding the code, save the file. Now, you can open the file in your web browser to see the result. Right-click on the file and select “Open with” and choose your preferred browser, or simply double-click the file.


Congratulations! You’ve successfully created a simple HTML document that prints “Hello, World!” on a webpage. This basic example is the foundation of web development, and from here, you can explore and learn more about HTML and other web technologies to create more complex and interactive web pages. Happy coding!

Reference: Chatgpt



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Starbucks, one of the world’s largest coffeehouse chains, was founded by three partners: Jerry Baldwin, Zev Siegl, and Gordon Bowker. Here’s a brief overview of Starbucks’ history and founding days:

Early History:

  • 1971: The first Starbucks store was opened in Seattle’s Pike Place Market on March 30, 1971. It was located at 2000 Western Avenue and specialized in selling high-quality coffee beans and equipment.
  • Partnership: Jerry Baldwin, Zev Siegl, and Gordon Bowker, all academics, were inspired by Alfred Peet, who introduced them to high-quality coffee beans through his store, Peet’s Coffee & Tea. They wanted to replicate the success of Peet’s by selling high-quality coffee beans and equipment.

Name and Logo:

  • Inspiration: The name “Starbucks” was inspired by the first mate in Herman Melville’s Moby Dick, as well as the coffee-loving character “Starbuck” from the book.
  • Logo: The original Starbucks logo depicted a topless siren from Greek mythology, designed by Terry Heckler. Over the years, the logo underwent several modifications, but the siren remained its central motif.

Growth and Expansion:

  • 1980s: Starbucks started to expand its offerings beyond coffee beans and equipment, offering brewed coffee and espresso beverages. They also began to open more stores in the Seattle area.
  • 1984: Howard Schultz, who was the director of retail operations and marketing, suggested that Starbucks should sell espresso beverages. However, when the original founders were not interested, Schultz left to start his own chain of coffeehouses called Il Giornale.
  • 1987: Schultz bought Starbucks’ assets with the help of investors and merged his Il Giornale stores with Starbucks. This marked the beginning of Starbucks’ rapid expansion.

Rapid Expansion:

  • 1990s: Starbucks began expanding aggressively, opening stores outside of Seattle. By the end of the decade, Starbucks had grown to over 2,000 stores worldwide.
  • Global Reach: Starbucks continued its global expansion, entering markets in Europe, Asia, and beyond. It became a symbol of American coffee culture worldwide.

Evolution and Diversification:

  • Product Diversification: Starbucks expanded its menu beyond coffee to include tea, pastries, sandwiches, and other snacks.
  • Digital Innovation: Starbucks was one of the early adopters of digital technology in the retail sector. It introduced mobile payments, loyalty programs, and mobile ordering to enhance customer experience.

Cultural Impact:

  • Third Place: Starbucks popularized the concept of the “third place” – a space between home and work where people could relax, socialize, or work.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility: Starbucks has been involved in various social and environmental initiatives, including fair trade practices, ethically sourced coffee, and community development programs.

Today, Starbucks operates thousands of stores worldwide and continues to be a dominant force in the global coffee industry. Its influence extends beyond coffee, impacting urban culture, consumer behavior, and the way businesses approach customer experience.

Referance: CHATGPT

SHOPIFY INC.- Leading E- Commerce Platform


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Game Stop Corporation – Leading Gaming Company


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ExxonMobil Corporation Leading Energy Company

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Exploring the Birth of Exxon Mobil: A Journey Through History

Exxon Mobil, a titan in the oil and gas industry, boasts a storied past that stretches back to the 19th century. Its evolution mirrors the transformation of the energy sector and the myriad influences that have shaped it over time. Let’s delve into the origins and milestones of this iconic company, from its inception to its current status as a global leader.


Exxon Mobil’s roots can be traced to two separate entities: Exxon and Mobil.


Founded in 1870 by John D. Rockefeller, the Standard Oil Company quickly rose to prominence as the world’s largest oil refiner. However, in 1911, it was dismantled by the U.S. Supreme Court due to antitrust concerns. One of the resulting companies, Standard Oil of New Jersey, eventually became Exxon.


In 1931, the Socony-Vacuum Oil Company emerged from the merger of Socony and Vacuum Oil. This company evolved over time to become Mobil Corporation.

The Merger:

The pivotal moment in Exxon Mobil’s history came in 1999 when Exxon and Mobil merged, forming Exxon Mobil Corporation. This union created the largest publicly traded company globally, consolidating their strengths in exploration, production, refining, and marketing.

Key Contributions:

Exxon Mobil has been a trailblazer in the energy industry, introducing innovations and making significant contributions such as:

  1. Technological Advancements: Continuously pushing the boundaries with cutting-edge technologies in exploration, drilling, and refining.

  2. Environmental Stewardship: Commitment to minimizing environmental impact and improving safety standards across operations.

  3. Global Reach: With operations spanning six continents, Exxon Mobil explores some of the most challenging environments on Earth.

  4. Corporate Responsibility: Actively engaging in social programs to support the communities where they operate.

Challenges and Controversies:

Despite its achievements, Exxon Mobil has faced challenges and controversies:

  1. Environmental Concerns: Criticism for its role in climate change and allegations of downplaying risks associated with fossil fuels.

  2. Legal Battles: Involvement in legal disputes over environmental pollution, human rights, and shareholder issues.

  3. Market Volatility: Navigating through fluctuating oil prices and geopolitical uncertainties in the energy market.

Future Outlook:

As the energy landscape evolves, Exxon Mobil is adapting by investing in renewable energy and enhancing operational efficiency. Its ability to innovate and navigate changing market dynamics will be critical to its future success.

In conclusion, Exxon Mobil’s journey from its humble beginnings to its current global stature reflects the broader narrative of industrialization and the quest for energy resources. Its history is not just a corporate story but a testament to the ever-changing dynamics of the energy industry and its impact on the world.

Referance: CHATGPT

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How To Use Chatgpt For Coding

Introduction: In today’s tech-driven world, leveraging AI tools like ChatGPT for coding assistance can be incredibly beneficial. While it’s not a direct replacement for traditional coding environments, ChatGPT can provide valuable support in various aspects of coding, from reviewing code to generating solutions. Let’s explore how you can effectively use ChatGPT to enhance your coding experience.

  1. Code Review and Feedback: You can paste your code into the chat, and I can help review it for errors, suggest improvements, or explain concepts if you’re stuck.
  2. Algorithm and Data Structure Help: If you’re struggling with a specific algorithm or data structure, I can explain how it works, provide examples, or even pseudo-code.
  3. Code Generation: You can describe a problem or what you’re trying to accomplish, and I can help generate code snippets or provide algorithmic solutions.
  4. Debugging Assistance: If you’re encountering errors, you can describe the issue, and I can help identify potential causes and solutions.
  5. Learning Resources: I can recommend learning resources, tutorials, or documentation related to specific programming languages or concepts.

Conclusion: In conclusion, ChatGPT can be a powerful ally in your coding journey. Whether you need help with debugging, understanding algorithms, or generating code snippets, ChatGPT is here to assist you. By utilizing its capabilities effectively, you can improve your coding skills, overcome challenges, and ultimately become a more proficient programmer.

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Mickey Mouse: The Enduring Icon of Animation

Mickey Mouse: The Enduring Icon of Animation

Mickey Mouse, the beloved mascot of The Walt Disney Company, is more than just a cartoon character. He’s an enduring symbol of optimism, joy, and the power of imagination. Since his creation in 1928, Mickey has captured the hearts of millions around the world and has become one of the most recognizable and beloved characters in pop culture. Let’s dive into the story of the iconic Mickey Mouse.

The Birth of an Icon:

Mickey Mouse made his debut in the animated short film “Steamboat Willie,” which premiered on November 18, 1928. Created by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, Mickey was originally conceived as a replacement for Disney’s earlier character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, after Disney lost the rights to Oswald. Walt was determined to create a new character that he owned outright, and thus, Mickey Mouse was born.

With his cheerful personality, big ears, and signature red shorts, Mickey quickly became a sensation. Audiences were captivated by his mischievous antics and his indomitable spirit. “Steamboat Willie” marked the beginning of a new era in animation and established Mickey as the face of Disney.

From Animation to Icon:

Throughout the 1930s, Mickey Mouse starred in a series of successful animated shorts, including “Plane Crazy,” “The Gallopin’ Gaucho,” and “The Karnival Kid.” These cartoons showcased Mickey’s versatility as a character, as he tackled various roles and adventures with his friends Minnie Mouse, Donald Duck, Goofy, and Pluto.

In 1935, Mickey made his first foray into color animation with the short film “The Band Concert,” further solidifying his status as a cultural phenomenon. He became more than just a character; he was a symbol of hope and resilience during the Great Depression, providing joy and laughter to audiences during difficult times.

Mickey’s Influence Spreads:

As Mickey’s popularity grew, so did his influence beyond the realm of animation. He appeared in comic strips, merchandise, and even inspired his own theme parks and television shows. “The Mickey Mouse Club,” which debuted in 1955, introduced Mickey to a new generation of fans and cemented his status as an enduring icon of childhood.

In the decades that followed, Mickey continued to evolve while retaining his timeless charm. He starred in feature-length films such as “Fantasia,” “Mickey’s Christmas Carol,” and “The Prince and the Pauper,” further expanding his storytelling potential and solidifying his place in cinematic history.

A Global Phenomenon:

Today, Mickey Mouse is more than just a character—he’s a global ambassador for The Walt Disney Company and a symbol of joy and creativity for people of all ages. From his appearances in theme parks around the world to his presence on merchandise, television, and digital media, Mickey’s influence knows no bounds.

Despite nearly a century since his creation, Mickey Mouse remains as beloved as ever. His timeless appeal transcends generations, cultures, and languages, uniting people around the world in a shared love for this iconic character.

The Magic Continues:

As Mickey Mouse celebrates nearly a century of entertaining audiences, his legacy lives on as a testament to the enduring power of imagination and storytelling. Whether he’s embarking on a daring adventure or simply sharing a laugh with friends, Mickey reminds us all to embrace the magic within ourselves and to never stop believing in the power of dreams. After all, as Walt Disney himself once said, “I only hope that we never lose sight of one thing—that it was all started by a mouse.”

Reference: CHATGPT




Discovering Magic: Journey through Disneyland

Discovering the Magic: A Journey through Disneyland

Nestled in the heart of Anaheim, California, Disneyland stands as a beacon of enchantment and wonder, drawing millions of visitors from around the globe each year. Since its opening in 1955, this iconic theme park has been captivating guests of all ages with its blend of imagination, storytelling, and innovation. Let’s embark on a journey through the history, attractions, and enduring charm of Disneyland.

A Land of Dreams: The Birth of Disneyland


Conceived by Walt Disney as a place where families could escape the ordinary and immerse themselves in a world of fantasy, Disneyland opened its gates on July 17, 1955. Walt’s vision was to create a theme park unlike any other, one where guests could step into their favorite fairy tales, explore distant lands, and experience the magic of Disney animation.

The park was divided into themed “lands,” each offering its own unique atmosphere and attractions. Main Street, U.S.A. welcomed visitors with a nostalgic trip back in time to turn-of-the-century America, while Adventureland, Frontierland, Fantasyland, and Tomorrowland promised adventures beyond imagination.

Classic Attractions and Timeless Magic


From the moment guests step foot inside Disneyland, they are greeted by a wealth of iconic attractions that have become synonymous with the park’s legacy. In Fantasyland, visitors can board the whimsical “it’s a small world” boat ride, journey into the heart of a diamond mine on the exhilarating “Snow White’s Enchanted Wish,” or take flight with Peter Pan on the enchanting “Peter Pan’s Flight.”

Adventure seekers can explore the treacherous waters of the Jungle Cruise, embark on a swashbuckling adventure with Pirates of the Caribbean, or traverse the perilous peaks of the Matterhorn Bobsleds. Meanwhile, in Tomorrowland, guests can blast off to outer space on Space Mountain, pilot their own spacecraft on Astro Orbiter, or explore the galaxy at Star Wars: Galaxy’s Edge.

Evolution and Expansion


Over the years, Disneyland has evolved and expanded, introducing new attractions, lands, and experiences while preserving the timeless charm that has made it a beloved destination for generations. In 2001, Disney California Adventure Park opened adjacent to Disneyland, offering a celebration of California’s rich history and culture.

Recent additions, such as Star Wars: Galaxy’s Edge and Pixar Pier, have further enhanced the park’s offerings, immersing guests in the worlds of their favorite films and characters like never before. Whether building a droid in Black Spire Outpost or racing through the Incredicoaster, Disneyland continues to push the boundaries of imagination and storytelling.

The Magic Lives On


As Disneyland approaches its 70th anniversary, its magic shows no signs of fading. Generations of families have made cherished memories within its gates, from first-time visits with wide-eyed children to nostalgic returns for adults who grew up with the park. Disneyland’s enduring appeal lies in its ability to transport guests to a world where dreams come true, where the magic of childhood is celebrated, and where anything is possible.

In a fast-paced world filled with technological marvels and digital distractions, Disneyland remains a beacon of innocence, joy, and wonder—a place where the young and the young at heart can come together to laugh, play, and create memories that will last a lifetime. As Walt Disney himself once said, “Disneyland will never be completed. It will continue to grow as long as there is imagination left in the world.” And so, the magic of Disneyland lives on, inspiring dreamers and believers for generations to come.



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A Brief History of The Walt Disney Company: The Story of its Founder

The Walt Disney Company, one of the world’s most iconic entertainment conglomerates, has a rich and fascinating history that begins with its visionary founder, Walt Disney. From humble beginnings to global dominance, the company’s journey is not only a testament to Walt Disney’s creativity but also a reflection of his relentless pursuit of innovation and storytelling magic.

Early Years and Beginnings:

The story of The Walt Disney Company begins in 1923 when Walt Disney, along with his brother Roy O. Disney, founded the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio in Los Angeles. They started their venture in the back of a small office in Hollywood, producing a series of short animated films featuring a character named Oswald the Lucky Rabbit. However, due to a contractual dispute over Oswald, Walt lost the rights to the character, prompting him to create a new character that would become synonymous with the Disney brand: Mickey Mouse.


The Birth of Mickey Mouse and the Rise of Disney:

In 1928, Walt Disney introduced the world to Mickey Mouse in the groundbreaking animated short film “Steamboat Willie.” Mickey’s instant popularity propelled Disney to new heights, and the company quickly expanded its operations, producing more animated shorts and introducing other beloved characters like Minnie Mouse, Donald Duck, and Goofy.

Throughout the 1930s and 1940s, Disney continued to innovate, releasing its first full-length animated feature, “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs,” in 1937. The film was a massive success, paving the way for classics like “Pinocchio,” “Fantasia,” and “Bambi.” Disney’s commitment to quality animation and storytelling set it apart from other studios, solidifying its reputation as a leader in the industry.

Diversification and Expansion:

In the following decades, Disney diversified its portfolio, venturing into television with shows like “The Mickey Mouse Club” and “Disneyland,” which later inspired the creation of Disneyland Park in Anaheim, California, in 1955. The theme park’s success led to the development of Walt Disney World Resort in Florida, which opened in 1971, followed by parks around the world.

Under Walt Disney’s leadership, the company continued to innovate, exploring new technologies and storytelling mediums. The release of “Mary Poppins” in 1964 showcased Disney’s ability to blend live-action and animation seamlessly, while projects like “The Jungle Book” and “101 Dalmatians” demonstrated its commitment to traditional animation.

Legacy and Beyond:

Tragically, Walt Disney passed away in 1966, but his legacy lived on through the company he founded. Under the guidance of his brother Roy and a team of talented executives, The Walt Disney Company continued to thrive, expanding into new areas such as film production, television networks, and consumer products.

In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, Disney’s acquisition of Pixar Animation Studios, Marvel Entertainment, and Lucasfilm Ltd. further solidified its position as a global entertainment powerhouse. The company’s diverse portfolio of brands and franchises, including Pixar’s “Toy Story,” Marvel’s “The Avengers,” and “Star Wars,” ensures its relevance across generations and cultures.

Today, The Walt Disney Company stands as a symbol of imagination, creativity, and innovation, with a legacy that spans nearly a century. From its humble beginnings as a small animation studio to its current status as a multinational conglomerate, Disney’s story is a testament to the power of storytelling and the enduring magic of imagination. Walt Disney’s vision continues to inspire millions around the world, reminding us that with a little faith, trust, and pixie dust, anything is possible.

Reference: CHATGPT


Rise and Fall of Binance Company

In the ever-evolving landscape of cryptocurrency exchanges, few names have garnered as much attention and controversy as Binance. Established in 2017 by Changpeng Zhao (CZ), quickly rose to become the world’s largest cryptocurrency exchange by trading volume, dominating the market with its innovative features, extensive range of trading pairs, and aggressive expansion strategies. However, its journey has not been without its share of challenges, controversies, and regulatory scrutiny, leading to periods of both soaring success and tumultuous setbacks.

The Meteoric Rise


Binance’s ascent to the top of the cryptocurrency world was nothing short of meteoric. Within months of its launch, it surpassed established exchanges like Coinbase and Bitfinex in trading volume, thanks to its user-friendly interface, low fees, and wide selection of cryptocurrencies for trading. Binance’s native token, BNB, played a pivotal role in its success, offering users discounts on trading fees and serving as a cornerstone for its ecosystem.

The exchange’s rapid expansion into new markets, including derivatives trading, decentralized finance (DeFi), and non-fungible tokens (NFTs), further solidified its position as an industry leader. Its acquisition of CoinMarketCap, the most widely used cryptocurrency data aggregator, in 2020, underscored Binance’s ambition to become a comprehensive hub for all things crypto.

Challenges and Controversies

However, Binance’s journey to the top has been marked by several challenges and controversies. One of the most significant hurdles has been its strained relationship with regulators worldwide. As governments around the world tightened regulations around cryptocurrency exchanges, Binance faced scrutiny from regulatory bodies in various jurisdictions, including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan.

Concerns over compliance, money laundering, and investor protection led to Binance implementing a series of measures, including stricter Know Your Customer (KYC) requirements and delisting certain tokens. However, regulatory pressure continued to mount, culminating in Binance announcing in 2021 that it would wind down its derivatives trading offerings in Europe, a move aimed at appeasing regulators.

The Fall and Repercussions

In recent years, Binance has faced a series of setbacks that have rattled investors and shaken confidence in its platform. High-profile security breaches, such as the hacking incident in 2019 that resulted in the theft of $40 million worth of Bitcoin, highlighted vulnerabilities in Binance’s security measures and raised concerns about the safety of user funds.

Moreover, Binance’s involvement in legal disputes, including allegations of market manipulation and insider trading, tarnished its reputation and raised questions about its commitment to transparency and integrity. The exchange’s decision to halt withdrawals of certain cryptocurrencies in 2021, citing “network congestion,” further fueled suspicions and led to accusations of market manipulation.

The Future of Binance

Despite its challenges, Binance remains a dominant force in the cryptocurrency space, with millions of users worldwide and a thriving ecosystem of products and services. However, its future trajectory is uncertain, as it navigates an increasingly complex regulatory landscape and seeks to regain trust and credibility in the eyes of both users and regulators.

Binance’s recent efforts to enhance compliance, strengthen security measures, and foster greater transparency are steps in the right direction. Additionally, its continued expansion into emerging markets and innovative sectors such as decentralized finance (DeFi) and non-fungible tokens (NFTs) could pave the way for renewed growth and relevance in the ever-evolving world of cryptocurrency.

In conclusion, the rise and fall of Binance serve as a cautionary tale in the volatile and unpredictable realm of cryptocurrency. While its meteoric rise showcased the potential for disruption and innovation in the industry, its subsequent challenges underscore the importance of regulatory compliance, security, and transparency in fostering long-term sustainability and trust. As Binance navigates the road ahead, its fate will be closely watched by investors, regulators, and cryptocurrency enthusiasts alike.

Referance; Chatgpt 






उपप्रधानमन्त्री यादव र महासभाका अध्यक्ष फ्रान्सिसबीच भेटवार्ता


काठमाडौँ — उपप्रधानसहित स्वास्थ्य तथा जनसंख्या मन्त्री उपेन्द्र यादवले संयुक्त राष्ट्र संघको महासभाका अध्यक्ष डेनिस फ्रान्सिससँग भेटवार्ता गरेका छन् । राष्ट्र संघको कार्यालयमा भएको भेटवार्तामा दुई जना बीच भेटवार्ता भएको न्युर्योकस्थित नेपाली स्थायी नियोगले जनाएको छ ।


उपप्रधानमन्त्री यादव र महासभाका अध्यक्ष फ्रान्सिसबीच भेटवार्ता

उनीहरूबीच दिगो पर्यटन, जलवायु परिवर्तन, अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय सहयोग र बहुपक्षीयताको महत्त्वजस्ता विविध विश्वव्यापी मुद्दाहरूमा छलफल भएको नियोगले जनाएको छ ।

PayPal Company Details and History

 The History and Founding Days of PayPal: Revolutionizing Online Payments

In the vast landscape of e-commerce and digital finance, PayPal stands out as a trailblazer, revolutionizing online payments and shaping the way we transact on the internet. From its humble beginnings to becoming a global household name, the history of PayPal is a fascinating journey of innovation, entrepreneurship, and disruption.

The Genesis: Confinity and

PayPal’s story traces back to the late 1990s when two companies, Confinity and, laid the groundwork for what would become one of the world’s leading online payment platforms. Confinity, founded by Max Levchin, Peter Thiel, and Luke Nosek in December 1998, initially focused on developing security software for handheld devices. However, the team soon realized the potential of their technology in facilitating online payments.

Around the same time, Elon Musk founded in March 1999 with the vision of creating an internet-based financial services company. started as an online bank but soon expanded its services to include email payments. Recognizing the synergy between their respective ventures, Confinity and merged in March 2000, with the combined entity retaining the name

The Birth of PayPal

The merger of Confinity and marked the birth of PayPal as we know it today. Under the leadership of Elon Musk, the company pivoted its focus to online payments, aiming to provide a secure and convenient solution for individuals and businesses to send and receive money digitally.

In October 2000, the company officially rebranded as PayPal, a name that symbolized its mission to facilitate payments via email – “Pay, Pal” – emphasizing the simplicity and friendliness of the service. PayPal’s innovative approach allowed users to link their accounts to email addresses, enabling seamless money transfers between individuals and merchants.

Rapid Growth and Expansion

With its user-friendly interface and robust security features, PayPal quickly gained traction in the burgeoning e-commerce market. The platform’s ease of use appealed to both consumers and businesses, driving rapid adoption and growth.

One of PayPal’s key strategies for expansion was its aggressive marketing campaigns and partnerships. The company incentivized users to sign up by offering referral bonuses and promotions, fueling its user base and cementing its position as the leading online payment solution.

In 2002, eBay, the world’s largest online marketplace, acquired PayPal for $1.5 billion, recognizing the synergies between the two platforms. The integration of PayPal into eBay’s checkout process further accelerated its growth, as millions of eBay users embraced the convenience and security of PayPal for their transactions.

Challenges and Innovations

Despite its success, PayPal faced numerous challenges along the way, including regulatory hurdles, security concerns, and competition from traditional financial institutions. However, the company’s relentless focus on innovation and customer satisfaction allowed it to overcome these obstacles and maintain its leadership in the industry.

In 2008, PayPal introduced its mobile payment solution, enabling users to send and receive money using their smartphones. This move capitalized on the growing trend of mobile commerce and positioned PayPal as a pioneer in the space.

In subsequent years, PayPal continued to innovate, launching features such as PayPal Here (a mobile card reader for small businesses), One Touch (a frictionless checkout experience), and Venmo (a peer-to-peer payment app targeting younger users). These innovations further diversified PayPal’s offerings and solidified its position as a fintech powerhouse.

Conclusion: A Legacy of Innovation

From its humble beginnings as a startup to its status as a global payments giant, PayPal’s journey has been nothing short of remarkable. The company’s founders, along with visionary leaders like Elon Musk, have reshaped the way we conduct financial transactions online, paving the way for the digital economy of the future.

As PayPal continues to innovate and expand its reach, its founding principles of simplicity, security, and convenience remain at the core of its success. With an ever-evolving landscape of technology and consumer behavior, PayPal is poised to continue shaping the future of payments for years to come.

Referance: CHATGPT


Company  Financials

 Company Profile


Company News

NATO: New Challenges in a Changing World

NATO: Adapting to New Challenges in a Changing World

Since its inception in 1949, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has been a cornerstone of international security, fostering peace and stability in the Euro-Atlantic region. Born out of the post-World War II landscape, NATO’s primary mission was to counter the Soviet threat and prevent the spread of communism. Over the years, its role has evolved to address a wide range of security challenges, from terrorism to cyber attacks. As the world continues to change, NATO faces new tests that require it to adapt and innovate to remain effective.


  • Origins and Evolution

NATO was established on April 4, 1949, with the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty by twelve founding member states. The treaty’s core principle was mutual defense: an attack on one member would be considered an attack on all. This collective defense mechanism was crucial during the Cold War, providing a deterrent against Soviet aggression in Europe.

The end of the Cold War brought significant changes to NATO’s role. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the alliance faced questions about its relevance. However, instead of disbanding, NATO adapted. It expanded its membership, welcoming former Warsaw Pact countries and former Soviet republics into its fold. This enlargement not only contributed to the stability and security of Central and Eastern Europe but also reinforced NATO’s role as a guarantor of peace on the continent.


  • New Challenges

In the post-9/11 era, NATO’s focus shifted beyond its traditional Euro-Atlantic area. The alliance invoked Article 5 for the first time in its history in response to the terrorist attacks on the United States, leading to the deployment of NATO forces in Afghanistan. This marked a significant expansion of NATO’s mission into counter-terrorism and stabilization operations.

Furthermore, NATO has had to confront new challenges in the realm of cybersecurity and hybrid warfare. Cyber attacks and disinformation campaigns pose threats to member states’ security and undermine public trust. NATO has responded by developing capabilities to defend against cyber threats and enhancing cooperation with partners in the cyber domain.

  • Adapting for the Future

As the world faces increasingly complex security challenges, NATO must continue to adapt. One of the key areas of focus is the modernization of military capabilities. This includes investments in emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence, autonomous systems, and space capabilities. By staying at the forefront of technological innovation, NATO can maintain its military edge and deter potential adversaries.

Additionally, NATO is reaffirming its commitment to collective defense while also deepening partnerships with like-minded countries and organizations. This includes cooperation with the European Union, the United Nations, and other regional security bodies. By working together, NATO and its partners can address common threats more effectively and promote stability in their respective regions.

  • Challenges Ahead

Despite its successes, NATO faces several challenges that require careful navigation. One such challenge is the resurgence of great power competition, particularly with Russia and China. Managing relations with these powers while upholding NATO’s principles of collective defense and deterrence is a delicate balancing act.

Another challenge is maintaining unity among member states, especially in the face of differing threat perceptions and geopolitical interests. NATO’s decision-making process relies on consensus among its members, making it essential to bridge any divides and find common ground on key issues.

  • Conclusion

As the world evolves, so too must NATO. From its origins as a defense alliance against the Soviet Union to its current role in addressing terrorism, cyber threats, and hybrid warfare, NATO has demonstrated its ability to adapt to new challenges. By modernizing its capabilities, strengthening partnerships, and maintaining unity among member states, NATO can continue to fulfill its mission of preserving peace and security in the Euro-Atlantic area and beyond.

Referance: CHATGPT


Boeing Company- Leading Aircraft Company


Company Details

Boeing: A Journey Through History and Present

From humble beginnings in a Seattle boathouse to becoming one of the world’s leading aerospace companies, Boeing has left an indelible mark on the history of aviation. Founded in 1916 by William Boeing, the company has played a pivotal role in shaping the aviation industry, from pioneering commercial jet travel to venturing into space exploration. Let’s delve into the fascinating journey of Boeing from its inception to its present-day achievements.

Early Years and Milestones

Boeing’s journey began with its first aircraft, the B&W seaplane, which took flight in 1916. However, it was during World War I that the company gained prominence by producing military aircraft such as the Model C and the MB-3. Post-war, Boeing shifted its focus to commercial aviation, introducing models like the Boeing 247, which revolutionized air travel with its all-metal construction and efficient design.

The company’s breakthrough came in 1958 with the launch of the Boeing 707, the world’s first commercially successful jetliner. This iconic aircraft not only transformed air travel but also laid the foundation for Boeing’s dominance in the commercial aviation market. Subsequent models like the 727, 737, 747, and 757 further solidified Boeing’s position as a global leader in aviation technology.

Expanding Horizons

Boeing’s innovation wasn’t confined to commercial aviation; it also ventured into defense and space exploration. The development of the B-17 Flying Fortress during World War II marked Boeing’s entry into military aircraft manufacturing. This was followed by the B-52 Stratofortress and the iconic B-29 Superfortress, which dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

In the 1960s, Boeing answered President Kennedy’s call to put a man on the moon by playing a crucial role in the Apollo program. The company’s Saturn V rocket powered the historic Apollo 11 mission, landing the first humans on the lunar surface in 1969.


Challenges and Triumphs in the Modern Era

Despite its historical successes, Boeing has faced significant challenges in the modern era. The company experienced setbacks with the development of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, including production delays and technical issues. However, the Dreamliner eventually became one of the most advanced and fuel-efficient commercial aircraft in the world, showcasing Boeing’s ability to overcome adversity and innovate.

In recent years, Boeing faced unprecedented challenges with the grounding of its 737 MAX fleet following two tragic crashes. The incidents led to intense scrutiny of the company’s safety protocols and management practices. Boeing has since worked tirelessly to address the issues, implementing changes to ensure the safety of its aircraft and restore public trust.

Present-Day Achievements and Future Prospects

Today, Boeing continues to push the boundaries of aerospace technology. The company’s portfolio includes a wide range of commercial aircraft, military platforms, and space systems. Its 777X and 737 MAX series remain popular choices among airlines worldwide, while the Boeing 787 Dreamliner continues to set new standards for efficiency and passenger comfort.

Boeing’s defense division remains a key player in military aviation, providing advanced fighter jets, surveillance aircraft, and missile defense systems to governments around the world. Additionally, the company is actively involved in space exploration, with projects like the CST-100 Starliner spacecraft aimed at ferrying astronauts to the International Space Station.

Looking ahead, Boeing is focused on sustainable aviation, exploring alternative fuels and advanced propulsion systems to reduce emissions and environmental impact. The company is also investing in autonomous and electric aircraft technologies, anticipating the future needs of the aviation industry.


Boeing’s journey from a small aircraft manufacturer to a global aerospace giant is a testament to human ingenuity and innovation. Throughout its storied history, the company has faced numerous challenges but has always emerged stronger and more resilient. As it continues to pioneer the future of flight, Boeing remains committed to pushing boundaries, driving progress, and shaping the world of aviation for generations to come.

Referance : CHATGPT


Company Financials

 Company News

सुनको मूल्य स्थिर, चाँदीको भने घट्यो

मंगलबार सुनको मूल्य स्थिर अवस्थामा छ भने चाँदीको मूल्य घटेको छ। यसदिन सुनको मूल्य सोमबार काराेबार भएकाे मूल्यमा नै स्थिर भएको हो। तर, चाँदीको मूल्य भने १५ रुपैयाँले सस्तिएको छ।

नेपाल सुनचाँदी व्यवसायी महासंघका अनुसार आज छापावाला सुन एक लाख ३७ हजार २०० रुपैयाँ र तेजाबी सुन प्रतितोला एक लाख ३६ हजार ५५० रुपैयाँमा कारोबार भईरहेको छ।

यसदिन चाँदी तोलामा १५ रुपैयाँले घटेर प्रतितोला एक हजार ६५० रुपैयाँमा किनबेच भईरहेको छ। सोमबार चाँदी प्रतितोला एक हजार ६६५ रुपैयाँमा कारोबार भएको थियो।

New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)

The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is one of the world’s largest and most prestigious stock exchanges, located on Wall Street in New York City. Here are some details about the NYSE:


  • Founded: The NYSE was founded in 1792 when 24 stockbrokers signed the Buttonwood Agreement under a buttonwood tree on Wall Street.
  • Location: New York Stock Exchange is headquartered at 11 Wall Street, New York City.
  • Ownership: The NYSE is owned by Intercontinental Exchange (ICE), which acquired it in 2013.


  • Trading Hours: The NYSE operates Monday through Friday, with trading hours from 9:30 AM to 4:00 PM Eastern Time.
  • Trading Mechanism: The NYSE operates as an auction-based market where buyers and sellers trade stocks on the exchange floor. It employs a combination of electronic trading and traditional open outcry methods.
  • Listings: The NYSE lists a wide range of companies, including large multinational corporations, mid-sized firms, and newly issued initial public offerings (IPOs).

Key Features:

  • Bell Ringing: Opening and closing trading sessions at the NYSE are traditionally marked by ringing a bell. Celebrities, corporate executives, and dignitaries often participate in these ceremonies.
  • Market Indices: The NYSE is home to several major market indices, including the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) and the S&P 500 Index.
  • Regulation: The NYSE is regulated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and self-regulatory organizations such as the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA).


  • Trading Platforms: The NYSE has modernized its trading operations with electronic trading platforms while still maintaining the iconic trading floor.
  • Data Services: The NYSE provides market data and analytics to investors, traders, and financial institutions through various data products and services.

Historical Events:

  • Black Thursday (1929): The NYSE experienced a significant stock market crash on October 24, 1929, which contributed to the Great Depression.
  • September 11 Attacks (2001): The NYSE was closed for several days following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, reopening on September 17, 2001.
  • Financial Crisis (2008): During the global financial crisis, the NYSE played a central role in the financial turmoil that led to market volatility and regulatory changes.

Modern Developments:

  • Technology and Innovation: The NYSE has embraced technology and innovation, introducing electronic trading platforms and exploring blockchain technology for settlement and other applications.
  • Global Expansion: The NYSE has expanded its global presence through partnerships and acquisitions, enabling it to attract listings from companies around the world.

The NYSE continues to be a vital institution in global finance, facilitating the trading of billions of dollars’ worth of securities daily and serving as a barometer for the health of the financial markets.

Referance: CHATGPT


Alibaba Company Details and History

Alibaba Group Holding Limited is a Chinese multinational conglomerate specializing in e-commerce, retail, internet, and technology. Here are some details about the company and its history:


  • Founded: Alibaba Group was founded on April 4, 1999, by Jack Ma and his team of 17 friends and associates.
  • Headquarters: Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
  • Founders: Jack Ma (Ma Yun), along with his co-founders, who aimed to create a platform for global trade.


  1. Founding and Early Years (1999-2004): Alibaba Group was founded by Jack Ma with the goal of creating a platform to connect Chinese manufacturers with international buyers. Its first website,, was launched as a business-to-business (B2B) portal.
  2. Expansion and Diversification (2005-2010): Alibaba expanded its services with the launch of Taobao, an online shopping platform similar to eBay, in 2003. It also launched Alipay, an online payment platform. Over the years, it diversified into various sectors, including online retail, cloud computing, digital entertainment, and logistics.
  3. IPO and Global Expansion (2010-2014): In 2014, Alibaba made history with its initial public offering (IPO) on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), raising $25 billion, making it one of the largest IPOs in history. This fueled further expansion and investment in various sectors both within and outside China.

  1. Continued Growth and Innovation (2015-present):

  2. Alibaba continued its growth trajectory, expanding its e-commerce platforms, investing in technology, cloud computing, artificial intelligence (AI), and logistics. It also acquired or invested in numerous companies both in China and globally, including Lazada, Youku Tudou, and

Key Businesses and Subsidiaries:

  • A leading global wholesale marketplace for small businesses.

  • Taobao: China’s largest online shopping website, catering to both consumers and businesses.

  • Tmall: A premium online retail platform in China that connects brands and retailers with consumers.

  • Alipay: A leading third-party online payment platform in China.

  • Alibaba Cloud: One of the world’s leading cloud computing service providers.

  • Cainiao Network: Alibaba’s logistics arm, providing end-to-end supply chain solutions.

  • Ant Group: Formerly known as Ant Financial, it operates Alipay and offers financial technology (fintech) services.

Corporate Culture and Vision:

  • Alibaba’s corporate culture is often described as innovative, entrepreneurial, and customer-centric, with Jack Ma famously emphasizing the importance of serving customers and employees.

  • The company’s vision is to build the future infrastructure of commerce and aims to make it easy to do business anywhere.

Challenges and Controversies:

  • Alibaba has faced challenges related to counterfeit goods on its platforms, regulatory scrutiny, and competition in both domestic and international markets.
  • In 2020, Alibaba’s affiliate, Ant Group, faced regulatory hurdles that led to the suspension of its highly anticipated IPO.

For the most up-to-date information about Alibaba Group, it’s best to refer to the company’s official website and recent financial reports.



Company Financials







Coca-Cola-Company Details and Profile

Company Details




The Coca-Cola Company is a multinational corporation known for its production, retailing, and marketing of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups. Here are some details about the company:


  • Founded: The Coca-Cola Company was founded in 1892.
  • Headquarters: Atlanta, Georgia, United States.
  • CEO: As of my last update, James Quincey was the CEO. However, it’s a good idea to verify whether there have been any changes since then.
  • Products: The company offers a wide range of beverages, including Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Sprite, Fanta, Minute Maid, Powerade, and many others. It also has a portfolio of over 500 brands spanning sparkling beverages, water, juice, sports drinks, energy drinks, and ready-to-drink coffees and teas.


  • Revenue: The Coca-Cola Company generates billions of dollars in revenue annually, making it one of the largest beverage companies in the world.
  • Market Cap: Its market capitalization typically ranks it among the largest companies globally.


  • Global Presence: The company operates in more than 200 countries worldwide, making it one of the most globally recognized brands.
  • Bottling Partners: Coca-Cola operates a franchised distribution system dating back to 1889, where it manufactures syrup concentrate and sells it to various bottlers worldwide, which then produce the final beverage product in bottles and cans.

Sustainability and Corporate Responsibility:

  • Coca-Cola has made efforts toward sustainability, including commitments to water stewardship, packaging recycling, and reducing environmental impact.

Recent Developments:

  • The company has been investing in innovation, introducing new products such as Coca-Cola Zero Sugar, Coca-Cola Energy, and expanding its portfolio to include healthier options and beverages tailored to specific markets.


  • Like many large corporations, Coca-Cola faces challenges related to health concerns over sugary drinks, changing consumer preferences, and environmental sustainability.

For the most current and detailed information, it’s recommended to visit the Coca-Cola Company’s official website or refer to their latest financial reports and press releases.




तेस्रो लगानी सम्मेलन आज सकिँदै

आईतवारबाट काठमाडौंमा शुरु भएको तेस्रो लगानी सम्मेलन आज सकिँदैछ । आईतवारबाट सरकारको आयोजनामा लगानी सम्मेलन शुरु भएको थियो ।

लगानी सम्मेलनमा विभिन्न ५५ देशका लगानीकर्ता सहभागी भएका छन् । सम्मेलनका नेपालका तीन सय ८५ जनाको सहभागिी भएका छन् । त्यसैगरी, चीनका २६५, भारतका १४३, संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिकाका ३३, जापानका २८, संयुक्त अधिराज्यका १४, बङ्गलादेशका १३, संयुक्त अरब इमिरेट्स (युएई) का १३ र जर्मनीका १० जना सहभागी छन् । दक्षिण कोरिया, अस्ट्रेलिया र मलेसियाका नौ÷नौ जना सम्मेलनमा सहभागी भएका छन् ।


Nepse Summary April 28 2024

Source: Sharesansar 

The Nepal Stock Exchange (NEPSE) Index saw a gain of 0.72%, or 14.33 points, settling at 1,980.27 points at the close of trading today, following a loss of 3.24 points in the previous session.

Opening at 1,973.54, the trading day witnessed fluctuations as the index reached an intraday high of 1,981.55 before dipping to an intraday low of 1,965.14.

With a bustling trading environment, 308 different stocks were exchanged in 48,183 transactions. The total volume of shares traded stood at 6,878,159, reflecting a total turnover of Rs. 2.68 Arba. The market capitalization closed at Rs. 31.39 Kharba, with a float market capitalization of Rs. 10.61 Kharba.

Pokhara Finance Ltd. (PFL) emerged as the highlight of the day with a turnover of Rs. 13.05 Crore, closing at a market price of Rs. 665.

Similarly, Pokhara Finance Ltd. (PFL) showed the highest gain of 9.84%, followed by Progressive Finance Limited (PROFL) with a gain of 7.62%.

Conversely, River Falls Power Limited (RFPL) faced a decline, losing 4.63% to close at Rs. 350.00.

In terms of sector, Only one sector Index concluded in positive territory, with the “Finance Index” leading with a gain of 3.98%. However, the “Trading Index” witnessed a decline of 0.34%.

Unlocking Market Volatility: Harnessing the Power of Average True Range

Unlocking Market Volatility: Harnessing the Power of Average True Range

In the world of trading, understanding and managing volatility is crucial for success. Among the myriad of tools available to traders, the Average True Range (ATR) stands out as a key indicator for assessing volatility and setting appropriate trade parameters. In this article, we will explore what the Average True Range is, how it works, and how traders can leverage it effectively in their trading strategies.

Understanding Average True Range (ATR)

Developed by J. Welles Wilder Jr. in the 1970s, the Average True Range (ATR) is a technical indicator that measures market volatility. Unlike other volatility indicators that focus solely on price changes, ATR considers both the price range and gaps between successive periods.

How ATR Works

ATR is calculated by finding the greatest of the following:

  1. The current high minus the current low
  2. The absolute value of the current high minus the previous close
  3. The absolute value of the current low minus the previous close

This calculation results in a value that represents the average trading range over a specified period, typically 14 periods.

Using Average True Range in Trading

Traders utilize ATR in various ways to enhance their trading strategies:

  1. Setting Stop Loss and Take Profit Levels: ATR can help traders set stop-loss orders and take-profit levels based on current market volatility. For example, a trader might set their stop loss at 2 times the ATR below their entry price in a volatile market.
  2. Determining Position Size: ATR can also be used to determine position size, with larger ATR values indicating larger potential price movements and thus requiring smaller position sizes to manage risk.
  3. Volatility Breakouts: Traders can use ATR to identify periods of high volatility and trade breakouts when price breaches previous highs or lows with a significant increase in ATR.
  4. Confirming Trend Strength: Increasing ATR values often accompany strong trends, while decreasing ATR values may signal a weakening trend or consolidation phase.

Considerations when Using Average True Range

  • Adapting to Market Conditions: ATR values can vary significantly depending on market conditions. Traders should adjust their strategies accordingly.
  • Combining with Other Indicators: ATR is most effective when used in conjunction with other technical indicators to confirm signals and improve trading accuracy.
  • Timeframe Selection: Traders should choose the appropriate timeframe for calculating ATR based on their trading style and the duration of the expected price movements.


Average True Range (ATR) is a versatile tool that provides valuable insights into market volatility, helping traders manage risk and make informed trading decisions. By incorporating ATR into their strategies, traders can effectively adjust their position sizes, set appropriate stop-loss and take-profit levels, and identify trading opportunities during periods of high volatility. However, it’s essential to use ATR alongside other indicators and to adapt strategies to changing market conditions for optimal results. With its ability to quantify volatility and guide trading decisions, ATR remains a cornerstone of technical analysis for traders across various financial markets.

Decoding Fibonacci Retracement: Enhancing Trading Strategies with a Time-Tested Tool

Decoding Fibonacci Retracement: Enhancing Trading Strategies with a Time-Tested Tool

In the realm of technical analysis, Fibonacci retracement is a popular tool used by traders to identify potential support and resistance levels within a price trend. Originating from the mathematical sequence discovered by Leonardo Fibonacci in the 13th century, this tool has stood the test of time in financial markets. In this article, we delve into what Fibonacci retracement is, how it works, and how traders can utilize it to bolster their trading strategies.

Understanding Fibonacci Retracement

Fibonacci retracement is based on the idea that markets tend to retrace a portion of a previous move before continuing in the direction of the trend. The key Fibonacci retracement levels are derived from ratios found in the Fibonacci sequence, particularly 23.6%, 38.2%, 50%, 61.8%, and 100%.

How Fibonacci Retracement Works

To apply Fibonacci retracement, traders identify a significant price move (swing high to swing low in a downtrend or swing low to swing high in an uptrend). They then draw Fibonacci retracement levels from the start to the end of that move.

  • 38.2% Level: This level often serves as the first level of support or resistance after a significant price move. It represents a common retracement in trending markets.
  • 50% Level: While not a Fibonacci number, the 50% level is often included in Fibonacci retracement levels. It indicates a moderate retracement and is closely watched by traders.
  • 61.8% Level: This level is known as the “golden ratio” and is considered one of the strongest retracement levels. It often serves as a support or resistance level.
  • Other Levels: Traders also sometimes use the 23.6% and 78.6% levels, though they are not as commonly emphasized.

Utilizing Fibonacci Retracement in Trading

Traders employ Fibonacci retracement in various ways:

  • Identifying Support and Resistance: Fibonacci retracement levels act as potential support or resistance zones where traders anticipate price reactions.
  • Entry and Exit Points: Traders may enter positions near Fibonacci retracement levels with tight stop-loss orders. They may also exit positions or take profit near these levels.
  • Trend Confirmation: When prices bounce off Fibonacci retracement levels, it confirms the strength of the prevailing trend.

Considerations when Using Fibonacci Retracement

  • Confirmation: Always confirm Fibonacci retracement levels with other technical indicators, such as trend lines, moving averages, or candlestick patterns.
  • Market Conditions: Fibonacci retracement may not always work well in choppy or sideways markets. It is most effective in trending markets.
  • Multiple Timeframes: Use Fibonacci retracement on multiple timeframes to identify significant levels that align with the overall market trend.


Fibonacci retracement is a valuable tool for traders seeking to identify potential support and resistance levels within price trends. By understanding how it works and incorporating it into their trading strategies, traders can gain insights into market dynamics and make more informed decisions. However, like any technical tool, Fibonacci retracement is not foolproof and should be used alongside other indicators and proper risk management techniques. With its ability to identify key price levels and potential reversal points, Fibonacci retracement remains a cornerstone of technical analysis for traders across various financial markets.

Navigating Market Trends with the Ichimoku Cloud: A Comprehensive Guide

Navigating Market Trends with the Ichimoku Cloud: A Comprehensive Guide

In the realm of technical analysis, the Ichimoku Cloud stands as a versatile and comprehensive tool for traders seeking to identify trends, support and resistance levels, and potential reversal points. Developed by Japanese journalist Goichi Hosoda in the late 1930s, the Ichimoku Cloud, also known as Ichimoku Kinko Hyo, offers a holistic view of market dynamics. In this article, we’ll delve into what the Ichimoku Cloud is, how it works, and how traders can effectively utilize it in their trading strategies.

Understanding the Ichimoku Cloud

The Ichimoku Cloud is a technical indicator that provides a visual representation of support and resistance levels, trend direction, and momentum. It consists of several components, each offering valuable insights into market conditions:

  1. Tenkan-sen (Conversion Line): This is calculated as the average of the highest high and the lowest low over the past nine periods. It represents short-term momentum and is often used to gauge trend direction.
  2. Kijun-sen (Base Line): Similar to the Tenkan-sen, the Kijun-sen is calculated as the average of the highest high and lowest low over the past 26 periods. It provides a longer-term view of trend direction and is considered a key support or resistance level.
  3. Senkou Span A (Leading Span A): This is the average of the Tenkan-sen and Kijun-sen, plotted 26 periods ahead. It forms the first boundary of the cloud and acts as a measure of future support or resistance.
  4. Senkou Span B (Leading Span B): This is the average of the highest high and lowest low over the past 52 periods, plotted 26 periods ahead. It forms the second boundary of the cloud and provides another measure of future support or resistance.
  5. Chikou Span (Lagging Span): This is the current closing price plotted 26 periods back. It provides a reference point for assessing the strength of current price movement relative to past prices.
  6. Kumo (Cloud): The area between Senkou Span A and Senkou Span B forms the cloud. The thickness of the cloud represents the volatility of the market, with a thicker cloud indicating stronger support or resistance.

How the Ichimoku Cloud Works

The interaction between the components of the Ichimoku Cloud provides traders with valuable signals:

  • Price and Cloud Relationship: When the price is above the cloud, it indicates a bullish trend, while a price below the cloud suggests a bearish trend.
  • Cloud Color Change: A change in the color of the cloud from red to green (or vice versa) can signal a potential change in trend direction.
  • Kumo Breakouts: When the price breaks out of the cloud, it may signal the beginning of a new trend.
  • Chikou Span Confirmation: The Chikou Span crossing above or below the price confirms bullish or bearish momentum, respectively.

Using the Ichimoku Cloud in Trading

Traders employ various strategies using the Ichimoku Cloud:

  • Trend Confirmation: Traders confirm the strength and direction of the trend by analyzing the relationship between the price and the cloud.
  • Cloud Bounces: Traders may enter trades when the price bounces off the cloud, using it as a support or resistance level.
  • Kumo Twist: A twist in the cloud (where Senkou Span A crosses above or below Senkou Span B) may signal a change in trend direction.
  • Chikou Span Confirmation: Traders look for confirmation of bullish or bearish momentum when the Chikou Span crosses above or below the price.

Considerations when Using the Ichimoku Cloud

  • Confirmation: Always confirm Ichimoku Cloud signals with other technical indicators or price action.
  • Market Conditions: The Ichimoku Cloud may perform differently in trending and ranging markets. Adapt strategies accordingly.
  • Timeframe Selection: Consider using the Ichimoku Cloud on multiple timeframes to confirm signals and identify significant levels.


The Ichimoku Cloud is a powerful and versatile tool for traders seeking to analyze trends, identify support and resistance levels, and gauge market momentum. By understanding its components and signals, traders can gain valuable insights into market dynamics and make more informed trading decisions. However, it’s essential to use the Ichimoku Cloud alongside other indicators and to adapt strategies to changing market conditions for optimal results. With its ability to provide a comprehensive view of market trends, the Ichimoku Cloud remains a cornerstone of technical analysis for traders across various financial markets.

Parabolic SAR: Riding the Trends with Precision

Parabolic SAR: Riding the Trends with Precision

In the ever-evolving landscape of technical analysis, traders rely on a multitude of indicators to make sense of market movements and identify profitable opportunities. Among these tools, the Parabolic SAR (Stop and Reverse) stands out as a versatile and effective indicator for trend following and reversal strategies. In this article, we’ll explore what the Parabolic SAR is, how it works, and how traders can utilize it to enhance their trading strategies.

Understanding Parabolic SAR

Developed by J. Welles Wilder Jr., the Parabolic SAR is a trend-following indicator designed to identify potential reversal points in the price of an asset. It is represented by a series of dots that appear either above or below the price chart, indicating potential stop and reversal points.

How Parabolic SAR Works

The Parabolic SAR is calculated based on the following formula:



  • 𝑆𝐴𝑅𝑛 is the SAR for the current period.
  • 𝑆𝐴𝑅𝑛−1 is the SAR for the previous period.
  • 𝐴𝐹 is the acceleration factor, which starts at a value of 0.02 and increases by 0.02 each time the extreme point (EP) reaches a new high or low.
  • 𝐸𝑃𝑛−1 is the highest high or lowest low of the previous period.

Using Parabolic SAR in Trading

Traders employ Parabolic SAR in various ways to make trading decisions:

  1. Trend Following: When the Parabolic SAR dots are below the price, it indicates an uptrend, and traders may consider buying. Conversely, when the dots are above the price, it indicates a downtrend, and traders may consider selling short.
  2. Stop Loss Placement: Traders use Parabolic SAR as a trailing stop-loss mechanism. As the price moves in their favor, they adjust their stop-loss orders to follow the SAR dots, locking in profits and minimizing potential losses.
  3. Reversal Signals: When the direction of the SAR dots changes, it may signal a potential trend reversal. Traders look for confirmation from other indicators or price action before entering a trade in the opposite direction.

Considerations when Using Parabolic SAR

  • Whipsaws: Parabolic SAR can produce whipsaws in ranging markets, where it generates multiple signals but fails to capture sustained trends. Traders should use it in conjunction with other indicators to filter out false signals.
  • Acceleration Factor: The acceleration factor determines how quickly the SAR moves closer to the price. Traders may adjust the acceleration factor to suit the volatility of the asset being traded.
  • Confirmation: Always confirm Parabolic SAR signals with other technical indicators or price action to increase the accuracy of trading decisions.


The Parabolic SAR is a valuable tool for traders seeking to ride trends with precision and manage risk effectively. By understanding its mechanics and incorporating it into their trading strategies, traders can gain valuable insights into market trends and identify profitable trading opportunities. However, like any indicator, Parabolic SAR is not without limitations and should be used in conjunction with other tools and proper risk management techniques. With its ability to identify trend direction and potential reversal points, Parabolic SAR remains a cornerstone of technical analysis for traders across various financial markets.

Referance: chatgpt

Volume: The Silent Indicator

Volume: The Silent Indicator

In the realm of technical analysis, where price movements are scrutinized for patterns and trends, volume stands as a silent yet powerful indicator. While often overlooked, volume provides crucial insights into market sentiment and the strength of price movements. In this article, we explore what volume is, how it works, and how traders can effectively utilize it in their trading strategies.

Understanding Volume

Volume in trading refers to the number of shares or contracts traded in a particular security during a given period. It is typically represented as bars or histograms at the bottom of price charts. Volume reflects the level of activity in the market and is a key measure of liquidity.

How Volume Works

Volume provides traders with valuable information:

  1. Confirmation of Price Movements: High volume during price increases suggests bullish sentiment, while high volume during price declines indicates bearish sentiment. Conversely, low volume during price movements may indicate lack of conviction and potential reversal.
  2. Trend Confirmation: Volume can confirm the strength of a trend. In an uptrend, increasing volume suggests conviction among buyers, while decreasing volume may signal weakening momentum. In a downtrend, the opposite is true.
  3. Reversal Signals: Volume spikes often accompany trend reversals. A sudden increase in volume after a period of consolidation may signal a breakout or breakdown.

Using Volume in Trading

Traders employ various strategies using volume:

  1. Volume Analysis: Traders analyze volume patterns to confirm price movements and identify potential trend reversals. For example, a price breakout accompanied by high volume is considered more reliable than one with low volume.
  2. Volume Moving Averages: Some traders use volume moving averages to smooth out volume fluctuations and identify changes in trend strength.
  3. Volume Divergence: Divergence between price and volume can provide valuable signals. For example, if prices make new highs while volume decreases, it may signal weakness in the uptrend.
  4. Volume Profile: Volume profile analysis identifies significant price levels based on the volume traded at each price level. Traders use this information to identify support and resistance levels and potential breakout or breakdown zones.

Considerations when Using Volume

  • Confirmation: Always confirm volume signals with other technical indicators or price action.
  • Context: Consider the context of volume within the broader market environment, including news events and market sentiment.
  • Market Conditions: Volume may behave differently in different market conditions, such as trending or ranging markets.


Volume is a vital yet often underestimated tool in technical analysis. By understanding its significance and incorporating it into their trading strategies, traders can gain valuable insights into market dynamics and make more informed decisions. Whether used to confirm price movements, identify trend strength, or anticipate reversals, volume provides traders with an additional layer of information to enhance their trading edge. With its ability to reveal market sentiment and the strength of price movements, volume remains an essential component of technical analysis for traders across various financial markets.

Referance: Chatgpt 

Stochastic Oscillator- Technical Indicator

Deciphering the Stochastic Oscillator: A Guide to an Essential Technical Indicator

In the dynamic world of financial markets, traders rely on a plethora of tools to analyze price movements and make informed decisions. Among these tools, the Stochastic Oscillator stands out as a valuable indicator for identifying overbought and oversold conditions and predicting potential trend reversals. In this article, we’ll explore what the Stochastic Oscillator is, how it works, and how traders can utilize it effectively in their trading strategies.

Understanding the Stochastic Oscillator

The Stochastic Oscillator is a momentum indicator that compares a security’s closing price to its price range over a specified period. Developed by George C. Lane in the late 1950s, it measures the speed and change of price movements, helping traders identify overbought and oversold conditions.

Components of the Stochastic Oscillator

The Stochastic Oscillator consists of two lines:

  1. %K Line: This is the main line and represents the current price as a percentage of the high-low range over a specific period, typically 14 periods.

  2. %D Line: The %D line is a moving average of the %K line, typically a three-period simple moving average (SMA) of %K.

The oscillator fluctuates between 0 and 100, with overbought conditions typically considered above 80 and oversold conditions below 20.

How the Stochastic Oscillator Works

The Stochastic Oscillator provides several signals to traders:

  1. Overbought and Oversold Conditions: When the %K line crosses above 80, it indicates overbought conditions, suggesting that the asset may be due for a downward correction. Conversely, when the %K line crosses below 20, it suggests oversold conditions, signaling a potential upward correction.

  2. Divergence: Divergence occurs when the price of the asset and the Stochastic Oscillator move in opposite directions. Bullish divergence occurs when the price makes a lower low, but the Stochastic Oscillator makes a higher low, indicating potential upward momentum. Conversely, bearish divergence occurs when the price makes a higher high, but the Stochastic Oscillator makes a lower high, suggesting potential downward momentum.

  3. Crosses of %K and %D Lines: When the %K line crosses above the %D line, it generates a bullish signal, indicating upward momentum. Conversely, when the %K line crosses below the %D line, it generates a bearish signal, indicating downward momentum.

Utilizing the Stochastic Oscillator in Trading

Traders employ various strategies using the Stochastic Oscillator:

  • Trend Confirmation: Traders use the oscillator to confirm the strength of a trend. Strong uptrends typically have the oscillator staying above 80, while strong downtrends see it remaining below 20.

  • Overbought/Oversold Signals: Traders look for opportunities to buy when the oscillator indicates oversold conditions and sell when it indicates overbought conditions.

  • Divergence Analysis: Traders analyze divergence between price and the Stochastic Oscillator to anticipate potential reversals or continuations.

Considerations when Using the Stochastic Oscillator

  • Confirmation: Always confirm signals from the Stochastic Oscillator with other indicators or price action.

  • Adjustment of Parameters: Adjust the period lengths of the Stochastic Oscillator to suit different markets and timeframes.

  • Market Conditions: Adapt strategies based on current market conditions, as the Stochastic Oscillator may perform differently in trending and ranging markets.


The Stochastic Oscillator is a versatile tool for traders seeking to identify overbought and oversold conditions and predict potential trend reversals. By understanding its components and signals, traders can incorporate it into their trading strategies to gain valuable insights into market dynamics and make more informed decisions. However, like any indicator, the Stochastic Oscillator is not without limitations and should be used in conjunction with other tools and proper risk management practices. With its ability to provide timely signals and valuable insights, the Stochastic Oscillator remains an essential component of technical analysis for traders across various financial markets.

Referance: CHATGPT

Best Technical Indicator For Trading

In the dynamic world of financial markets, traders constantly seek tools that can help them make informed decisions amidst volatility. Among the plethora of strategies and methodologies, technical analysis stands out as a popular approach. Technical indicators, in particular, play a crucial role in helping traders identify trends, gauge market sentiment, and time their trades effectively. Here, we delve into the ten best technical indicators that traders rely on for success.

1. Moving Averages (MA): Moving averages smooth out price data to identify trends over a specified period. The most common types are Simple Moving Average (SMA) and Exponential Moving Average (EMA). MAs help traders identify trend direction and potential reversal points.

2. Relative Strength Index (RSI): RSI measures the speed and change of price movements, indicating overbought or oversold conditions. Traders use RSI to confirm trends and identify potential trend reversals.

3. Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD): MACD combines two MAs to signal changes in momentum. It consists of the MACD line, signal line, and histogram, providing insights into trend strength and potential crossovers.

4. Bollinger Bands: Bollinger Bands consist of a moving average and two standard deviations plotted above and below it. They help traders identify volatility and potential price reversals when the bands contract or expand.

5. Stochastic Oscillator: The Stochastic Oscillator compares a security’s closing price to its price range over a specified period. It helps traders identify overbought or oversold conditions and potential trend reversals.

6. Fibonacci Retracement: Based on the Fibonacci sequence, this tool identifies potential support and resistance levels. Traders use Fibonacci retracement levels to anticipate price corrections within a trend.

7. Average True Range (ATR): ATR measures market volatility by analyzing price ranges over a specified period. Traders use ATR to set stop-loss levels and determine position size according to market conditions.

8. Ichimoku Cloud: This complex indicator provides insights into trend direction, momentum, and support/resistance levels. It consists of five lines, with the cloud (Kumo) representing future support and resistance zones.

9Volume reflects the number of shares or contracts traded in a security. Traders use volume to confirm price trends and identify potential reversals. High volume often accompanies strong price moves.

10. Parabolic SAR (Stop and Reverse): Parabolic SAR helps traders identify potential trend reversals. It places dots above or below the price, signaling when the trend direction may change.

While these indicators offer valuable insights, it’s essential to understand that no single indicator guarantees success. Traders often combine multiple indicators to confirm signals and increase their probability of making profitable trades. Moreover, they should adapt their strategies to changing market conditions and employ risk management techniques to protect their capital.

In conclusion, mastering these ten technical indicators can significantly enhance a trader’s ability to analyze markets and make informed decisions. Whether you’re a novice or seasoned trader, integrating these tools into your trading arsenal can be the key to unlocking success in the financial markets.


Bollianger Bands – Technical Indicator

Unveiling Bollianger Bands: A Comprehensive Guide to the Technical Indicator

In the realm of financial markets, traders are constantly on the lookout for effective tools to decipher market movements and make informed decisions. Among the plethora of technical indicators available, Bollinger Bands stand out as a powerful tool for analyzing volatility and identifying potential trend reversals. In this article, we delve into what Bollinger Bands are, how they work, and how traders can utilize them to enhance their trading strategies.

Understanding Bollinger Bands

Bollinger Bands were developed by John Bollinger in the 1980s. They consist of three lines:

  1. Middle Band (MA): The middle band is typically a simple moving average (SMA) of the price data, usually set at 20 periods.
  2. Upper Band: The upper band is calculated by adding a specified number of standard deviations (usually 2) to the middle band.
  3. Lower Band: Similarly, the lower band is calculated by subtracting the same number of standard deviations from the middle band.

The distance between the upper and lower bands is a measure of market volatility. When volatility increases, the bands widen, and when it decreases, the bands contract.

How Bollinger Bands Work

Bollinger Bands serve several purposes:

  1. Volatility Measurement: Widening bands indicate increasing volatility, while narrowing bands suggest decreasing volatility.
  2. Trend Identification: Prices generally stay within the bands during a trending market. A move above the upper band may signal overbought conditions, while a move below the lower band may signal oversold conditions.
  3. Reversal Signals: When prices touch or penetrate one of the bands, it may signal a potential reversal. However, it’s essential to use other indicators or price action confirmation to validate signals.\

Using Bollinger Bands in Trading

Traders employ various strategies using Bollinger Bands:

  1. Bollinger Squeeze: A Bollinger Squeeze occurs when the bands contract tightly, indicating low volatility. Traders anticipate a significant price movement following the squeeze and may enter trades accordingly.
  2. Bouncing off the Bands: When prices touch the upper or lower band but do not break through, traders may anticipate a reversal back towards the middle band.
  3. Divergence: When the price forms a higher high but the indicator forms a lower high, or vice versa, it may indicate a potential reversal.
  4. Trend Confirmation: Traders use Bollinger Bands in conjunction with other indicators to confirm trend direction and identify potential entry or exit points.

Considerations when Using Bollinger Bands

  • Confirmation: Always confirm signals from Bollinger Bands with other indicators or price action.
  • Adaptation: Adjust the parameters of the bands (such as the number of periods and standard deviations) to suit different markets and timeframes.
  • Risk Management: Use appropriate risk management techniques, such as setting stop-loss orders, to protect against adverse price movements.


Bollinger Bands are a valuable tool for traders seeking to analyze volatility, identify potential reversals, and confirm trend direction. By understanding how they work and incorporating them into a comprehensive trading strategy, traders can gain valuable insights into market dynamics and make more informed decisions. However, like any indicator, Bollinger Bands are not foolproof and should be used in conjunction with other tools and proper risk management practices. With their versatility and reliability, Bollinger Bands remain a cornerstone of technical analysis for traders across various financial markets.


Moving Average – Technical Indicator

Mastering Moving Averages: A Guide to the MA Technical Indicator

In the world of financial markets, traders constantly seek tools that can help them navigate the complexities of price movements and make informed decisions. Among the many technical indicators available, the Moving Average (MA) stands as one of the most fundamental and widely used. In this article, we explore what MAs are, how they work, and how traders leverage them to enhance their trading strategies.

Understanding Moving Averages

Moving Averages (MAs) are statistical calculations used to analyze data points by creating a series of averages of different subsets of the full data set. In the context of trading, MAs primarily smooth out price data to identify trends over a specified period.

Types of Moving Averages

There are several types of MAs, but the two most common are:

  2. Simple Moving Average (SMA): SMA calculates the average price of a security over a specific period, equally weighting each data point.
  3. Exponential Moving Average (EMA): EMA places more weight on recent prices, making it more responsive to recent price changes compared to SMA.

How Moving Averages Work

MAs are plotted as lines on price charts, indicating the average price of a security over a certain period. Traders often use two MAs simultaneously, with different periods, to generate trading signals.

  • Golden Cross: When a shorter-term MA crosses above a longer-term MA, it signals a potential uptrend.
  • Death Cross: Conversely, when a shorter-term MA crosses below a longer-term MA, it signals a potential downtrend.

Utilizing Moving Averages in Trading

Traders use MAs in various ways to make trading decisions:

  1. Trend Identification: MAs help identify the direction of the trend. An uptrend is confirmed when prices are above the MA, and a downtrend when prices are below.
  2. Support and Resistance: MAs act as dynamic support and resistance levels. Prices often bounce off MAs, providing entry or exit points.
  3. Crossover Signals: Traders use the crossover of MAs to generate buy or sell signals. A bullish crossover occurs when a shorter-term MA crosses above a longer-term MA, and vice versa for a bearish crossover.
  4. Price Reversal: When prices deviate significantly from the MA, it may signal an overextended market and a potential reversal.

Considerations when using Moving Averages

While MAs offer valuable insights, traders should consider the following:

  • Timeframe Selection: Choose MAs based on the trading timeframe. Shorter MAs are suitable for short-term trading, while longer MAs are better for long-term trends.
  • Confirmation with Other Indicators: Use MAs in conjunction with other indicators for confirmation of signals.
  • Market Conditions: Adapt MAs to different market conditions, as they may perform differently in trending and ranging markets.


Moving Averages serve as a foundational tool for traders across various markets and timeframes. By understanding their types, applications, and potential limitations, traders can incorporate MAs into their trading strategies effectively. Whether used for trend identification, support and resistance, or generating trading signals, mastering Moving Averages can significantly enhance a trader’s ability to interpret price action and make informed decisions in the dynamic world of financial markets.

Moving Averages (MACD)- Technical Indicator

Unlocking the Power of MACD: A Comprehensive Guide to the Moving Average Convergence Divergence Indicator

In the fast-paced world of financial markets, traders rely on sophisticated tools to interpret price movements and optimize their trading strategies. Among these tools, the Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) stands out as a versatile and powerful technical indicator. This article aims to demystify MACD, explaining its components, how it works, and how traders utilize it effectively.

Understanding MACD

The Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD) is a momentum indicator that illustrates the relationship between two exponential moving averages (EMAs) of a security’s price. Comprised of three main components – the MACD line, Signal line, and Histogram – it provides valuable insights into market momentum and potential trend reversals.

MACD Components

  1. MACD Line: Calculated by subtracting the 26-day EMA from the 12-day EMA, the MACD line represents short-term momentum.
  2. Signal Line: This is a 9-day EMA of the MACD line, acting as a trigger for buy and sell signals.
  3. Histogram: The Histogram visually depicts the difference between the MACD line and the Signal line, highlighting the convergence and divergence of the two.

How MACD Works

MACD oscillates above and below a centerline, indicating bullish or bearish momentum. Traders typically look for three types of signals:

  1. Crossover Signals: When the MACD line crosses above the Signal line, it suggests a bullish trend, while a cross below indicates a bearish trend.
  2. Divergence Signals: Bullish divergence occurs when the price makes a lower low but the MACD makes a higher low, signaling potential upward momentum. Conversely, bearish divergence suggests potential downward momentum.
  3. Histogram Analysis: Contraction or expansion of the histogram indicates changes in momentum, aiding traders in identifying potential trend reversals or continuations.

Utilizing MACD in Trading

Traders employ MACD in various ways to make informed decisions:

  • Trend Confirmation: MACD confirms trend direction, with a rising MACD indicating bullish momentum and a falling MACD suggesting bearish momentum.
  • Entry and Exit Signals: Crossovers between the MACD and Signal lines provide entry and exit points. Buying occurs when the MACD crosses above the Signal line, while selling occurs when it crosses below.
  • Divergence Analysis: Traders analyze divergence between price and MACD to anticipate trend reversals or continuations.
  • Histogram Trends: Monitoring histogram movements helps traders gauge changes in momentum and potential shifts in market sentiment.


The MACD is a valuable tool for traders seeking to understand market momentum and identify potential trading opportunities. By mastering its components and signals, traders can enhance their strategies and make more informed decisions. However, it’s crucial to use MACD alongside other indicators and consider market conditions and risk management principles. With its ability to capture both short-term and long-term trends, MACD remains a cornerstone of technical analysis for traders across diverse financial markets.

Nepal Investment Summit 2024

Source: Sharesansar 

The upcoming Nepal Investment Summit 2024, scheduled to take place in the federal capital on April 28 and 29, is poised to feature a diverse array of 151 projects aimed at bolstering the nation’s economy. With a primary objective of attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) to fuel the establishment of factories and industries across various sectors, the Summit aims to catalyze the implementation of these projects for comprehensive national development.

These projects are perceived as vital contributors to the country’s overall progress, highlighting the imperative of external investment alongside government and private sector contributions to secure the necessary capital, technology, and human resources required for successful project execution. The 58th Meeting of the Investment Board has taken decisive steps to facilitate project realization by initiating calls for letters of intent and engaging in extensive discussions with potential investors.

Notably, the energy sector emerges as a focal point, with 31 projects slated for presentation at the Summit, as revealed by Board spokesman Pradyumna Prasad Upadhyay. Additionally, a diverse range of projects spanning sectors such as transport, mining and minerals, tourism, agriculture, production, industrial infrastructure and trade, health and education, communications and information technology, water supply, and urban development are set to be showcased.

In tandem with government initiatives, the private sector is also poised to unveil 31 projects aimed at attracting foreign direct investment during the Summit. Upadhyay underscored the government’s steadfast commitment to prioritizing private sector investment, including FDI, citing recent legislative amendments and enactments designed to cultivate an investment-friendly environment and streamline procedures to enhance ease of doing business.

With a concerted focus on bridging resource and technology gaps to drive economic development, the government remains unwavering in its efforts to bolster foreign investment commitments and inflows. The Summit serves as a pivotal platform for forging strategic partnerships and fostering collaborative endeavors to propel the nation towards sustainable growth and prosperity.

लाभांश प्रस्ताव सहित सिईडिबि साधारण सभा

Source: Merolagani

सिईडिबि हाइड्रोपावर डेभलपमेन्ट कम्पनी लिमिटेडले गत आर्थिक वर्षको मुनाफाबाट शेयरधनीहरुलाई वितरण गर्ने लाभांश प्रस्तावसहित आर्थिक वर्ष २०७७/७८ र आर्थिक वर्ष २०७८/७९ को साधारण सभा बोलाएको छ।

कम्पनीले बैशाख ३१ गते, सोमबार, नेवा ब्याम्बो कटेज, हरिसिद्धि, ललितपुरमा साधारण सभा बोलाएको हो। सो सभा बिहान ८ बजे शुरु हुनेछ।

सभाले दुई आर्थिक वर्षको लागि हाल कायम चुक्ता पूँजीको ११ प्रतिशतका दरले बोनस शेयर र ०.५७८९ प्रतिशत नगद लाभांश वितरण गर्ने विशेष प्रस्ताव पारित गर्नेछ। त्यसैगरी, समाले प्रबन्धपत्र तथा नियमावली संशोधन गर्न सञ्चालक समितिलाई अख्तियारी दिने, सञ्चालकहरुको निर्वाचन गर्ने, स्वतन्त्र सञ्चालकको नियुक्ति अनुमोदन गर्ने, लेखापरीक्षक नियुक्त गर्ने लगायतका प्रस्तावहरु पनि पारित गर्नेछ।

साधारण सभा तथा लाभांश वितरण प्रयोजनार्थ कम्पनीले बैशाख १९ गतेदेखि ३१ गतेसम्म बुकक्लोज गर्ने भएको छ। यस अनुसार बैशाख १८ गतेसम्म नेप्सेमा कारोबार भइ कायम शेयरधनीहरुले कम्पनीको साधारण सभामा सहभागिता जनाउनका साथै कम्पनीले वितरण गर्ने लाभांश प्राप्त गर्न सक्नेछन्।


फरवार्ड माइक्रोफाइनान्सको नाफा र आम्दानी बढ्यो

Source: Merolgani

फरवार्ड माइक्रोफाइनान्स लघुवित्त वित्तीय संस्था लिमिटेड (FOWAD) ले चालु आर्थिक वर्षको तेस्रो त्रैमाससम्मको अपरिष्कृत वित्तीय विवरण प्रकाशित गरेको छ। विवरण अनुसार गत आर्थिक वर्षको सोही अवधिको तुलनामा लघुवित्तको खुद नाफा र प्रतिशेयर आम्दानी दुबै उल्लेख्य बढेको छ।

चालु आर्थिक वर्षको पहिलो ९ महिनासम्ममा लघुवित्तले ११ करोड ६५ लाख रुपैयाँ खुद नाफा कमाएको छ। यो गत आर्थिक वर्षको सोही अवधिको तुलनामा १६७.१६ प्रतिशत बढी हो। गत आर्थिक वर्षको सोही अवधिसम्ममा लघुवित्तको यस्तो नाफा ४ करोड ३६ लाख रुपैयाँ थियो।

खुद ब्याज आम्दानी सामान्य बढेपनि इम्पेरमेन्ट चार्ज र खर्च घटेका कारण लघुवित्तको खुद नाफा बढ्न पुगेको हो।

समीक्षा अवधिमा लघुवित्तको खुद ब्याज आम्दानी ६.१६ प्रतिशत बढेको छ भने खुद फि तथा कमिशन आम्दानी ७.३९ प्रतिशत घटेको छ। त्यसैगरी, समीक्षा अवधिमा लघुवित्तको कुल सञ्चालन आम्दानी ४.०५ प्रतिशत र सञ्चालन मुनाफा १८०.०३ प्रतिशत बढेको छ।

समीक्षा अवधिमा लघुवित्तको निष्क्रिय कर्जा ५.८८ प्रतिशतबाट बढेर ८.२६ प्रतिशत पुगेको छ। यद्यपि लघुवित्तको इम्पेरमेन्ट चार्ज भने ४८ करोड ५५ लाखबाट घटेर ४२ करोड १५ लाख रुपैयाँमा झरेको छ। यसका कारण लघुवित्तको सञ्चालन मुनाफा र खुद नाफा उल्लेख्य बढ्न पुगेको हो।

नाफासँगै लघुवित्तको प्रतिशेयर आम्दानी पनि उल्लेख्य बढेको छ। समीक्षा अवधिमा लघुवित्तको यस्तो आम्दानी ९ रुपैयाँ २१ पैसा बढेर १४ रुपैयाँ ७२ पैसा रहेको छ। चैत मसान्तसम्ममा लघुवित्तको मूल्य आम्दानी अनुपात ७६ गुणा रहेको छ भने प्रतिशेयर नेटवर्थ २६९ रुपैयाँ ३४ पैसा रहेको छ।

तेस्रो त्रैमाससम्ममा लघुवित्तको वितरण योग्य मनुाफा ११ करोड ६५ लाख रुपैयाँ रहेको छ भने प्रतिशेयर वितरणयोग्य आम्दानी ४२ रुपैयाँ ७८ पैसा रहेको छ।

१ अर्ब ५ करोड रुपैयाँ चुक्ता पूँजी रहेको यस लघुवित्तको जगेडा कोषमा १ अर्ब ७८ करोड रुपैयाँ सञ्चित छ। सो अवधिसम्ममा लघुवित्तले ८ अर्ब ७८ करोड रुपैयाँ निक्षेप तथा सापटीबाट १९ अर्ब ८२ करोड रुपैयाँ कर्जा प्रवाह गरेको छ।


सपोर्ट लघुवित्तको नाफा उल्लेख्य बढ्यो

सपोर्ट लघुवित्तको नाफा उल्लेख्य बढ्यो


सपोर्ट लघुवित्त वित्तीय संस्था लिमिटेड (SMB) ले चालु आर्थिक वर्षको तेस्रो त्रैमाससम्मको परिष्कृत वित्तीय विवरण प्रकाशित गरेको छ। विवरण अनुसार लघुवित्तको खुद नाफा गत आर्थिक वर्षको सोही अवधिको तुलनामा उल्लेख्य बढेको छ।

चालु आर्थिक वर्षको चैत मसान्तसम्ममा लघुवित्तले १ करोड २३ लाख रुपैयाँ खुद नाफा कमाएको छ। यो गत आर्थिक वर्षको सोही अवधिको तुलनामा ९४.९१ प्रतिशत बढी हो। गत आर्थिक वर्षको सोही अवधिसम्ममा लघुवित्तले ६३ लाख रुपैयाँ खुद नाफा कमाएको थियो।

खुद ब्याज आम्दानी सामान्य बढेपनि अन्य सञ्चालन आम्दानी र सञ्चालन मुनाफा उल्लेख्य बढेका कारण खुद नाफा उल्लेख्य बढ्न पुगेको हो।

समीक्षा अवधिमा लघुवित्तको खुद ब्याज आम्दानी ८.७८ प्रतिशत बढेको छ भने अन्य सञ्चालन आम्दानी ८९.३५ प्रतिशत बढेको छ। त्यसैगरी, समीक्षा अवधिमा लघुवित्तको कुल सञ्चालन आम्दानी २४.१० प्रतिशत बढेको छ भने सञ्चालन मुनाफा १२०.९३ प्रतिशत बढेको छ।

नाफासँगै लघुवित्तको प्रतिशेयर आम्दानी पनि बढेको छ। समीक्षा अवधिमा लघुवित्तको यस्तो आम्दानी ८ रुपैयाँ ४१ पैसा बढेर १७ रुपैयाँ २८ पैसा पुगेको छ। सो अवधिसम्ममा लघुवित्तको मूल्य आम्दानी अनुपात ७७.९७ गुणा रहेको छ भने प्रतिशेयर नेटवर्थ २२ रुपैयाँ ४० पैसा रहेको छ।

९ करोड ५२ लाख रुपैयाँ चुक्ता पूँजी रहेको यस लघुवित्तको जगेडा कोषमा ५ करोड ७९ लाख रुपैयाँ सञ्चित छ। समीक्षा अवधिमा लघुवित्तको निक्षेप १७.८२ प्रतिशत, सापटी ३०.३४ प्रतिशत र कर्जा २४.०२ प्रतिशत बढेको छ।